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    Displaying items by tag: gene mutation
    Monday, 17 March 2014 12:41

    Gene mutation in the fight against HIV

    mouseResearch conducted at the laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania, provides data to the first change in the targeted gene, which leads to the creation of genetically modified immune cells impermeable to the HIV virus.

    The study focuses on the use of a technique known as targeted gene editing.

    The aim is to change conformation of the CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) delta32, which represents a protein on the surface of T - cells that HIV uses to connect to and infect healthy cells.

    If the protein is changed even slightly, the virus is unable to continue its development. Although the modification of the protein is not able to kill the virus, its ability to proliferate is suppressed, generally used in drugs used for treatment of patients diagnosed with HIV.

    Only a small portion of the world population carries an allele that cause this conformational change in CCR5 - delta32.

    Basically everyone should copy inherited from both parents, which therefore does not allow inoculation with the virus. The fact is, however, that allele is owned by only 14% of the European population and carriage in African and Asian populations is even more rare.

    It is this mutation serves as inspiration for the study.

    There are involved only 20 subjects diagnosed as HIV positive by 2 persons they fell, due to the very low levels of T cells.

    In the remaining 18 patients, the T cells are subjected to the modification, and then monitor their response to the match, and the virus.

    In 6 th patient has seen a sharp rise in resistance to the virus, which even led to the discontinuation of drug therapy.

    Although immune cell lives on average about six weeks, the modified cells can be detected several months later.

    These changes have not eradicated the virus from the body, and although best results patients are not cured.

    Yet to be made additional tests and studies, the researchers, however, have an optimistic attitude and better predict outcome.

    Published in News

    cervical-smear-test1Researchers have to develop a test with the aid of which will be able to determine the presence of cancer in the body, regardless of the type. Initially, the scientific team of Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas working on a quest to discover genetic mutation, which can be confirmed pancreatic cancer without the need for biopsy. The researchers found that cancer cells, like other healthy individual specific small particles known as exosomes, 1983, having "footprint" of the respective tumor.

    Exosomes are small bubbles that form in the cytoplasm and secreted by cells into the extracellular environment. They can be found in a study of various body fluids, such as blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, saliva, breast milk even. Their size is in the range of the virus, they are larger than the low density lipoprotein (bad cholesterol molecule), but smaller than the red blood cells. Their diameter is between 30 and 100 nanometers.

    Exosomes carrying the proteins, RNA and lipids. Participate in the regulation of immune responses and are an important component of intercellular communication. Relatively recently it was found that the transferred microRNA and mRNA to specific target cells and in particular, that provide for horizontal transport of mRNA between the cells, i.e. they are carried out by means of differentiation of the cell recipient. It is believed that the nucleic acids are transferred, are involved in the epigenetic inheritance. There is evidence that protein exosomes to create favorable changes in tumor growth cell-around environment.

    Researchers from the University of Texas believes it can develop a test that decipher coded in the excuzemes. This can not only determine the presence of cancerous processes in the body, but he caught at the beginning of tumorigenesis, which will be of immense value in medical practice for early detection, diagnosis and treatment of patients.

    At this stage there is no such medical text with the help of which you can find out whether a person suffers from some kind of tumor. Medicine use multiple tests "recognize" one or another gene mutation, pointing respectively to one or another type of tumor and whether it is malignant or benign.

    To be diagnosed with a tumor disease, it is first necessary to determine if it exists, to reach it, if it is available, and finally there are always risks and costs of surgical interventions, said Dr. Raghu Kaluri team .

    According to him, the genetic analysis of exosomes will help to determine not only the presence of a tumor process in the organism, but also its identification without biopsy. Different types of cancer produce different chromosomal mutations explains it with the test will be possible to know whether the cancer, pancreatic or brain, for example.

    Such a tool will undoubtedly enhance the ability of physicians to detect cancer in its early stages and effectively treating oncological diseases are written in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. Still a lot of work on the development of the test, which is not an easy task, given that the very exosomes is still studied by science.

    Published in News