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    Displaying items by tag: antibiotics

    antibioticsIn a boom for manufacturers of medicinal products has become a new enzyme acting as a specialized "wrench" in the structure of antibiotics.
     
    In the so-called kiromisin scientists discern right tool for the creation of these drugs at the molecular level so that we treated more precisely.

    Scientists from the University of North Carolina hope to modify this enzyme successfully synthesize stronger and more adaptable antibiotics based on natural compounds, which at the same time sparing the body more than the ones we use now.
     
    As is known, they are quite harmful because it effectively destroyed the natural body mechanism which protects us from all disease - the immune system. And she could not fully recover by itself.

    When you take antibiotics not only kill the "bad" but the good microbes, leaving the intestines almost completely exhausted the useful regulating the immune response to intestinal flora and therefore seriously compromised immune system as a whole.

    The kiromisin can be created by natural and synthetic drugs to withdraw from the chemical laboratory. It is only factory producing the assembly shown by enzymes each of which performs its own specific function.
     
    This process would give the medical ability to "stand" on nature in the creation of various drugs that will be cheaper, more efficient and at the same time protecting human health and the environment.

    Published in News

    peptides-elisa-targatt-culture-pcr-knockin-mouse-targatt-knockinA new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, PNAS, conducted by researchers at the Ruhr University in Bochum, shows how peptides can be designed so that attack bacterial cells.

    Researchers believe that the disposal of pathogenic bacteria could be done without harming human cells.

    Moreover, this type of therapy would reduce the risk of resistance that developed most pathogens to previously applied drugs.

    Previous studies have already shown that many antimicrobial peptides interact with cell membranes of the bacteria and thus perform its microbicidal effect.

    RUB team has turned his attention to the study of a peptide called MP196, which is a group of very small positively charged peptides consisting of four to ten amino acids.

    From previous studies it is known that the MP196 can cope with a variety of bacteria including some that are multi - drug-resistant, but it is unclear exactly how this process is carried out.

    Researchers have demonstrated that prevents MP196 proteins in the cell membrane of the bacteria and thereby distort two key cellular processes: cell wall biosynthesis and cell breathing.

    Through disruption of cell wall biosynthesis, the peptide interferes with the integrity of the bacterial cell, and by interfering with the cellular respiration, distorts the production of ATP, the molecule that stores the energy used by the cell.

    Scientists are confident that the MP196 offers a starting point for developing new drugs that attack specific classes of bacteria without harming human cells, but to be confirmed in their findings need to go a long way.

    The study is part of the development of innovative antibiotics.

    To solve new drugs, federal authorities need detailed information about the procedure and the effects of drugs on both pathogens and on human cells.

    Published in News

    In a surprising new finding, researchers have discovered that bacterial movement is impeded in flowing water, enhancing the likelihood that the microbes will attach to surfaces. The new work could have implications for the study of marine ecosystems, and for our understanding of how infections take hold in medical devices.

    The findings, the result of microscopic analysis of bacteria inside microfluidic devices, were made by MIT postdoc Roberto Rusconi, former MIT postdoc Jeffrey Guasto (now an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Tufts University), and Roman Stocker, an associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at MIT. Their results are published in the journal Nature Physics.

    The study, which combined experimental observations with mathematical modeling, showed that the flow of liquid can have two significant effects on microbes: "It quenches the ability of microbes to chase food," Stocker says, "and it helps microbes find surfaces."
    That second finding could be particularly beneficial: Stocker says in some cases, that phenomenon could lead to new approaches to tuning flow rates to prevent fouling of surfaces by microbes—potentially averting everything from bacteria getting a toehold on medical equipment to biofilms causing drag on ship hulls.

    The effect of flowing water on bacterial swimming was "a complete surprise," Stocker says. "My own earlier predictions of what would happen when microbes swim in flowing water had been: 'Nothing too interesting,'" he adds. "It was only when Roberto and Jeff did the experiments that we found this very strong and robust phenomenon."

    microbesmore-rosa26-feeder-cells-human-primary-cells
    Charts of the probability that a bacterium will have a given orientation, at three different positions in the moving stream of water, are plotted based on experimental data (solid lines) and mathematical models (dashed lines), showing how well the two agree.

    Even though most microorganisms live in flowing liquid, most studies of their behavior ignore flow, Stocker explains. The new findings show, he says, that "any study of microbes suspended in a liquid should not ignore that the motion of that liquid could have important repercussions on the microbes."

    The novelty of this result owes partly to the divisions of academic specialties, and partly to advances in technology, Stocker says. "Microbiologists have rarely taken into account fluid flow as an ecological parameter, whereas physicists have just recently started to pay attention to microbes," he says, adding: "The ability to directly watch microbes under the controlled flow conditions afforded by microfluidic technology—which is only about 15 years old—has made all the difference in allowing us to discover and understand this effect of flow on microbes."

    The team found that swimming bacteria cluster in the "high shear zones" in a flow—the regions where the speed of the fluid changes most abruptly. Such high shear zones occur in most types of flows, and in many bacterial habitats. One prominent location is near the walls of tubes, where the result is a strong enhancement of the bacteria's tendency to adhere to those walls and form biofilms.

    But this effect varies greatly depending on the speed of the flow, opening the possibility that the rate of biofilm formation can be tweaked by increasing or decreasing flow rates.
    Guasto says the new understanding could help in the design of medical equipment to reduce such infections: Since the phenomenon peaks at particular rates of shear, he says, "Our results might suggest additional design criteria for biomedical devices, which should operate outside this range of shear rates, when possible—either faster or slower."

    "Biofilms are found everywhere," Rusconi says, adding that the majority of bacteria spend significant fractions of their lives adhering to surfaces. "They cause major problems in industrial settings," such as by clogging pipes or reducing the efficiency of heat exchangers. Their adherence is also a major health issue: Bacteria concentrated in biofilms are up to 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics than those suspended in liquid.
    The concentration of microbes in the shear zones is an effect that only happens with those that can control their movements. Nonliving particles of similar size and shape show no such effect, the team found, nor do nonmotile bacteria that are swept along passively by the water. "Without motility, bacteria are distributed everywhere and there is no preferential accumulation," Rusconi says.

    The new findings could also be important for studies of microbial marine ecosystems, by affecting how bacteria move in search of nutrients when one accounts for the ubiquitous currents and turbulence, Stocker says. Though they only studied two types of bacteria, the researchers predict in their paper that "this phenomenon should apply very broadly to many different motile microbes."

    In fact, the phenomenon has no inherent size limit, and could apply to a wide range of organisms, Guasto says. "There's really nothing special about bacteria compared to many other swimming cells in this respect," he says. "This phenomenon could easily apply to a wide range of plankton and sperm cells as well."

    Howard A. Stone, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton University, who was not involved in this research, calls this a "very interesting paper" and says "the observation of shear-induced trapping, which can impact the propensity for bacterial attachment on surfaces, is an important observation and idea, owing to the major importance of bacterial biofilms."

    Published in News

    120607180058--biological-research-products-knock-out-rat-taq-pcr

    There's new hope for development of an antibiotic that can put down a lethal "superbug" bacteria linked to the deaths of hundreds of hospital patients around the world, including a recent case at Edmonton's Royal Alexandra Hospital.

    Researchers from the University of Alberta-based Alberta Glycomics Centre found a chink in the molecular armour of the pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. The bacteria first appeared in the 1970s and in the last decade it has developed a resistance to most antibiotics.
    U of A microbiologist Mario Feldman identified a mechanism that allows Acinetobacter baumannii to cover its surface with molecules known as glycoproteins. That led the researchers to another discovery. "If the superbug cannot produce glycoproteins they become less virulent and less capable of forming biofilms," said Feldman. "The biofilm protects the bacteria from antibiotics."
    Acinetobacter baumannii is a particularly insidious and contagious pathogenic bacteria that has plagued hospitals around the world. It spreads from one person to another by physical contact. The bacteria can live on hard surfaces for several days and can cling to hospital equipment like catheter tubes and inhalers. Acinetobacter infection is also spread by coughing and sneezing.
    Hospital patients whose immune systems are already worn down are the most susceptible to the bacteria. It infects wounds and can spread to the lungs, blood and brain.
    The researchers say more work is required to understand how the bacteria produce glycoproteins. "We're hopeful our work will enable future development of drugs to interrupt the production of glycoproteins to weaken or eliminate the bacteria's shield against antibiotics," said Feldman.
    Feldman is a principal investigator for the Alberta Glycomics Centre at the U of A. The list of coauthors includes U of A graduate students Jeremy Iwashkiw and Brent Weber, and research colleagues in Ottawa, Austria and Australia. Their work was published June 7 in the journal PLoS Pathogens.

    Published in News
    Wednesday, 24 July 2013 09:41

    New front in the war against infection

    proffemaleAlthough not completely destroy bacterial and viral infections, penicillin has been a revolution in medicine and its introduction has saved hundreds of millions of lives in the last century. It was unique for its broad spectrum of activity. But since its introduction in medical practice so far appeared many new, exotic and constantly evolving strains of viruses and bacteria that are terrible for health capability - develop resistance to even our most powerful antibiotics.

    Scientists at the lab "Lincoln" at MIT are about to end this constant race between human antibiotics and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms.
     
    They created a drug that has proven effective against almost all strains of 15 of the most common viruses in the world. Rhinoviruses that cause the common cold, H1N1 flu, stomach viruses, polio virus, dengue fever and other hemorrhagic viruses, causing internal bleeding.

    At present there are few drugs which are effective against specific viruses, such as HIV protease inhibitors controlling agent responsible for AIDS. Unfortunately, they are expensive and often - susceptible to viral resistance. Therefore, the researchers introduced a new approach to the problem - light, which searches and finds the infected cells, not with the virus, and with any type of viral agents. Once localized, these cells are destroyed to prevent the spread of infection.

    When a virus particle infects a cell, it "distracts" cellular structures and makes them subject to one goal: to create more copies of the virus. They leave the cell, often destroying her in the process and invade new cells for the same purpose. During the process of replication, viruses establish long strands of the double-stranded RNA which is not present in human or animal organisms. The human body has a protective mechanism that is triggered by the detection of similar chains, but many viruses are able to evade detection and cause delayed immune response that usually starts too late.

    To prevent this problem, Todd Rider, head of the research group introduced a new strategy against the attackers. According to it, a much more efficient than the current inducing an enhanced immune response would be, if coupled with a protein binding to the foreign RNA of another protein that induces apoptosis - programmed cell death. Similar compounds exist in nature and the team was able to combine them. Because of their natural origin, they are capable of little aid to pass through the cell membranes of all human tissues and cells. When the drug gets into the infected cell, he programmed for self-destruction, but through uninfected cells, this remains intact.

    The drug has been proven non-toxic, and its few side effects do not cause serious health threats. It has already passed laboratory and experimental stage and soon became its clinical trials. If they also succeed, scientists are convinced: up to 3 years the drug could be on the market.
     
    They are proud of their successes achieved so far because they believe they have found a "penicillin of the 21st century."

     

    Published in News
    Monday, 24 June 2013 14:37

    Silver and antibiotics - star duo

    antibioticsAntibiotic resistance - the ability of pathogens to evolve and overcome the antibiotic preparations is about to collide with an unexpected ending. New research allows the silver to deter frighteningly rapid adaptation of microorganisms to the drugs, which the discovery of penicillin has increase exponentially. Currently, data on resistance to accumulate and it proved to be amplified, while the amount of new antibiotics in development or on the market falls.

    There are thousands of written information about the healing power of silver. Today there are many homeopathic preparations containing precious metals. According to proponents of homeopathy silver enhances immunity and heals the body. These therapies, however, are unpredictable and sometimes have an effect sometimes - not. What is certain and confirmed, however we offer James Collins, a researcher from the University "Boston" Massachusetts.

    His team has discovered how the metal in the form of dissolved ions, damaging bacteria. It makes them more membrane permeable and disrupts intracellular harmony of balance, leading to over-production of highly reactive and toxic oxygen compounds. When using silver solution in relatively small quantities as a supplement to the antibiotic, the scientific team found that the antibiotic kills from 10 to 1,000 times more bacteria. More permeable membranes allow more antibiotics to invade rogue cells, exacerbating the drug repeatedly.

    Development of a pill is still in its infancy, as it should be considered the optimal amount of silver - enough to help, not harm. Even in moderate doses, it causes argyria - a disease in which the skin becomes permanent blue color. At higher doses, toxic effects are much more dangerous - mainly damage the cardiovascular system.
     
    Scientists hope to understand the mechanism by which silver affects the cell walls and create a synthetic compound that perform the same functions, without incurring the side effects of the metal.

    Published in News
    Saturday, 18 May 2013 17:20

    InfectoSTOP 25ml

    Initiating a primary cell culture from a surgical tissue is often difficult because of contamination. It is therefore important to incubate the tissue in an appropriate solution containing an optimized mixture of antibiotics, each at a given concentration able to avoid infectious contamination without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, it is not always possible to initiate primary cell culture immediately after surgical excision so the tissue needs to be stored for several hours until further processed.

    Product Description

    InfectoSTOP (GENT 19 - INSTOP) is a ready-to-use solution containing an optimized mix of antibiotics against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasma and fungi for cell culture applications.

    Simply dilute the necessary volume (enough to cover the tissue) of InfectoSTOP in PBS or in cell culture medium.

    Intended Use

    InfectoSTOP is intended for use in primary cell culture initiation or to extend cell viability in fresh surgical material of any tissue type.

    InfectoSTOP can also be used for decontaminating established cell cultures.

    The product should be handled under sterile conditions and is not intended for animal or human use.

    Caution: If handled improperly, some components of this product may present a health hazard. Take appropriate precautions when handling this product, including the wearing of protective clothing and eyewear. Dispose of properly

    How to use InfectoSTOP

    To initiate primary cultures from fresh surgical material

    Dilute InfectoSTOP 10x in PBS (4 °C) and put the tissue in the freshly made solution. Rinse tissue immediately twice or more and then incubate 2 hours at 4 °C. Prepare a fresh solution, rinse once and incubate overnight (or at least one week without viability loss, depending on the type of tissue) at 4 °C.

    Just before initiating primary cell culture, rinse one more with InfectoSTOP.

    To eliminate contamination in anchorage-dependant cells
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 5x diluted fresh made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate at 37 °C for 1 hour
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 10x diluted freshly made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate at 37 °C for 3 hours
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 10x diluted freshly made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate overnight in cell culture with a 10x diluted freshly made dilution of InfectoSTOP in complete culture medium

    The above cell treatment can be repeated twice if necessary.

    The dilution and incubation time of InfectoSTOP must be adjust to your own cell culture

    To eliminate contamination in anchorage-independent cells

    Same procedure as above, but before rinsing and incubation, pellet the cells by brief centrifugation.

    Storage and Stability
    •  InfectoSTOP is stored under -20° C at our facility and is shipped on dry ice.
    •  If the product is to be used immediately, thaw in a 37° C water bath or overnight at 4° C.
    •  If thawed in a water bath, do not leave the product at 37° C for more than 1 hour.
    •  When stored at 4° C, InfectoSTOP is stable for at least 2 weeks.
    •  If the product is not to be used within 1 week after receipt, we recommend storing it at below -20° C in a freezer that is not self-defrosting.
    •  Do not thaw and refreeze more than once. When stored at below -20°C, the product is stable until the expiration date shown on the label.

    Handling:

    GLP techniques should be employed for the safe handling of this product.

    This includes observing the following practices:

    • - Wear appropriate laboratory cloches including a lab coat, gloves and safety glasses.
    • - Do not mouth pipette, inhale, ingest or allow to come into contact with open wounds. Wash thoroughly any area of the body, which comes into contact with the product.
    • - Avoid accidental autoinoculation by exercising extreme care when handling in conjunction with any injection device.
    • - Handle the product under sterile area.
    • - This product is intended for research purposes and should be handled by qualified personnel only. It is not intended for use in humans or in animals. Gentaur is not liable for any damages resulting from the misuse or handling of this product.
    Components

    One bottle of 25 ml.

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    Published in Promos

    Researchers from the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) and IBM Research today unveiled the first-ever antimicrobial hydrogel that can break apart biofilms and destroy multidrug-resistant superbugs upon contact. Tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of this novel synthetic material in eliminating various types of bacteria and fungi that are leading causes of microbial infections, and preventing them from developing antibiotic resistance. This discovery may be used in wound healing, medical device and contact lens coating, skin infection treatment and dental fillings.

    IBN Executive Director Professor Jackie Y. Ying said, “As a multidisciplinary research institute, IBN believes that effective solutions for complex healthcare problems can only emerge when different fields of expertise come together. Our longstanding partnership with IBM reflects the collaborative creativity across multiple platforms that we aim to foster with leading institutions and organizations. By combining IBN's biomaterials expertise and IBM’s experience in polymer chemistry, we were able to pioneer the development of a new nanomaterial that can improve medical treatment and help to save lives.”

    Dr Yi-Yan Yang, Group Leader at IBN said, “The mutations of bacteria and fungi, and misuse of antibiotics have complicated the treatment of microbial infections in recent years. Our lab is focused on developing effective antimicrobial therapy using inexpensive, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer material. With this new advance, we are able to target the most common and challenging bacterial and fungal diseases, and adapt our polymers for a broad range of applications to combat microbial infections.”

    More than 80% of all human microbial infections are related to biofilm. This is particularly challenging for infections associated with the use of medical equipment and devices. Biofilms are microbial cells that can easily colonize on almost any tissue or surface. They contribute significantly to hospital-acquired infections, which are among the top five leading causes of death in the United States and account for US$11 billion in healthcare spending each year.

    Published in News