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    Displaying items by tag: Gentaur

    cockroach-head-gentaurIn the ongoing battle between humans and cockroaches, the insects have a leg up. A new study finds that roaches evolved their taste buds to make sweet insecticide baits taste bitter. As a result, the roaches avoid the baits and thrive, to the frustration of homeowners everywhere.

    Plenty of insects evolve resistance to pesticides; they gain the ability to break down poisons without dying. German cockroaches, on the other hand, evolved what's known as a behavioral resistance to baits. They simply stopped eating them.

    "Our paper is the first to show the sensory mechanism that underlies that behavioral resistance," said study researcher Coby Schal, an entomologist at North Carolina State University.

    The answer, Schal and his colleagues found, is in the taste buds.

    Evolving cockroaches

    German cockroaches are the small, scuttling roaches frequently seen in human habitats, including homes and restaurants. They grow to be about a half-inch (1.27 centimeters) long and are omnivorous, scavenging everything from grease to starch.

    "They'll eat pretty much anything in the kitchen, but they are incredibly good at eating things that are adaptive to them," Schal told LiveScience. "They are really amazingly good at learning to associate smells with specific tastes."

    Beginning in the 1980s, many pest control companies switched from using spray insecticides to control cockroaches to using baits. The baits combine sugars with insecticide so that roaches eat them, thinking they are sugary snacks, return to their nests and die. Ideally, the other cockroaches in the nest then cannibalize their dead relative, getting a dose of the poison, too.

    This worked beautifully — for a while. But in 1993, NC State entomologist Jules Silverman noticed that several populations of German cockroaches around the world were thriving in spite of the baits. The roaches were refusing to eat the glucose, or sugar, that was supposed to make the bait appealing.

    Bitter or sweet?

    Pest control companies switched up the sugars in their baits to keep them working, and for years, no one knew how the roaches had developed their glucose aversion. Now, Schal, Silverman and NC State postdoctoral researcher Ayako Wada-Katsumata have the answer.

    The first question, Schal said, was whether there was a change in the brains or the sensory systems of the glucose-averse roaches. To find out, Wada-Katsumata conducted a delicate procedure in which she sedated roaches with ice, immobilized them and attached electrodes to the taste hairs on the cockroach mouthparts. These taste hairs act like taste buds on the human tongue, detecting chemical signals and sending them to the insect's central nervous system.

    In normal roaches, some of the cells in the taste hairs respond to bitter tastes and others to sweet tastes. In roaches that avoided glucose, however, there was one change.

    "The system was perfectly normal, except for the fact that glucose was being recognized not only by the sweet-responding cell, but also by the bitter-responding cell," Schal said.

    In other words, the glucose-averse roaches tasted sweet things as bitter and thus avoided them. (Even cockroaches have standards, it seems.)

    Roaches could have evolved this response simply because people started poisoning them with sweet baits, Schal said. It's also possible that the trait goes way back in cockroaches' 350-million-year history. Some plants produce toxic bittersweet compounds that roaches would have needed to avoid before humans came around. Once humans started building dwellings and roaches moved in, they may have lost this sugar-avoidance ability in order to snack on humans' leftovers. When people started developing sugary baits, the preadapted anti-sugar trait may have re-emerged, Schal said.

    Either way, Schal said, the finding has implications for pest control. The industry has replaced glucose in baits with another sugar, fructose, but evidence already suggests that roaches are evolving to avoid fructose, too, he said. The industry needs to vary baits frequently and make multiple types at once to stay a step ahead of the roaches, he said.

    "If you put out a little dab of bait and see that the cockroach bounces back from it, there's no point of using that bait," Schal said.

     

    Published in News
    Monday, 27 May 2013 09:04

    Vampire Moth Discovered

    vampire-moth-evolution-gentaurA previously unknown population of vampire moths has been found in Siberia. And in a twist worthy of a Halloween horror movie, entomologists say the bloodsuckers may have evolved from a purely fruit-eating species.

    Only slight variations in wing patterns distinguish the Russian population from a widely distributed moth species, Calyptra thalictri, in central and southern Europe known to feed only on fruit.

    When the Russian moths were experimentally offered human hands this summer, the insects drilled their hook-and-barb-lined tongues under the skin and sucked blood.

    Entomologist Jennifer Zaspel at the University of Florida in Gainesville said the discovery suggests the moth population could be on an "evolutionary trajectory" away from other C. thalictri populations. This is the second population of vampire moths Zaspel and her team have found. They discovered the first in Russia in 2006.

    Next January, she will compare the Russian population's DNA to that of other populations and other species to confirm her suspicions.

    "Based on geography, based on behavior, and based on a phenotypic variation we saw in the wing pattern, we can speculate that this represents something different, something new," Zaspel said.

    "But it is really difficult to say without knowing genetic differences between individuals in that population, and among individuals from other populations, how different this group is going to be."

    Blood Feeding

    If it turns out that Zaspel has indeed caught a fruit-eating moth evolving blood-feeding behavior, it could provide clues as to how some moths develop a taste for blood.

    Published in News
    Monday, 27 May 2013 08:51

    What Makes Us Feel an Itch?

    It's a burning question in science—what makes us feel an itch?

    bear-itch-gentaur-antibodiesScientists experimenting in mice may have found the culprit: A molecule used by the heart is pulling double duty, sending a message to the spinal cord that ultimately produces that familiar tickle on our skin.

    The finding elevates itch—previously thought to be a mild form of pain—to a separate phenomenon, with "its own dedicated landline to the brain," study co-author Mark Hoon, a molecular geneticist at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research in Bethesda, Maryland, said in a statement.

    And because mice and people share similar biology, the scientists suspect that people also have this circuit.

    The discovery could also someday identify a way to block the molecule from producing itching—a potentially life-changing intervention for millions of people who suffer from chronic itch, particularly those with eczema and psoriasis.

    "Itch is coming into its own as a serious medical condition that deserves treatment above and beyond pain," said Earl Carstens, a neurobiologist and itch expert at the University of California, Davis, who wasn't involved in the study.

    There's even a case of a woman whose itch was so severe that she scratched through her skull into her brain, Carstens said.

    "We know much less about itch than we know about pain, and this paper advances our knowledge about the basic mechanism of itching."

    Getting to the Root of the Itch

    Called natriuretic polypeptide b (Nppb), the itch-causing molecule is already known to be released by the heart, where it controls blood pressure by regulating the amount of sodium released by the kidneys.

    The team decided to focus their research on Nppb because it showed up as a promising candidate in their search to find molecules in itch-sensing cells.

    But first the team had to show that Nppb acts as a neurotransmitter by signaling the brain to itch. 

    So they injected the molecule into mouse skin, with no results. But when the team injected the molecule into a place on the spinal cord that communicates with other nerves, the mice started scratching—a main indicator of itch.

    Next, the team genetically engineered mice that did not have the Nppb molecule.

    In an "aha moment," Hoon said, the team exposed the mice to compounds known to produce itch—and the animals didn't scratch at all. Without Nppb, the animals didn't feel an itch, according to the study.

    Itching itself likely evolved to protect us from disease, Hoon added. 

    "If you think about all of the nasty critters that come through our skin ... it's a way to protect ourselves and remove irritants on the skin before they can do damage," he said.

    Double-Duty Molecules

    UC-Davis's Carstens said "he never would have predicted" that Nppb is the itchmaker, since it has such a different role in the body.

    Co-author Hoon agreed that it's "really weird that this [molecule] is from the heart."

    But both experts noted that our bodies are extremely efficient, often finding ways to make certain parts work multiple jobs, as in the case of Nppb.

    Hoon likens it to "biological cassettes" that produce different responses when "played" in various organs of the body.

    He also suspects there are more such double-duty molecules in our body—just itching to be found.

     

    Published in News

    Bioluminescent images are acquired from NIH3T3 cells expressing SV40 promoter fused luciferase with cellgraph. The merge images of bright field and bioluminescence shown as pseudo color.

    Real-time monitoring fig

     

    Data analysis with dedicated software “Cellgraph viewer”

    Cellgraph Viewer is an image analysis software. It is very simple and easy to use, and has multiple function such as luminescent intensity measurement, making movie and montage… etc..  The ROI mode in analysis tools provides the function to measure bioluminescent intensities individually in any given region of interest. The result of analyzing bioluminescence intensity data can be exported as CSV format files. 

    Data analysis

     

    Bioluminescence imaging of a brain tissue slice containing the mouse hypothalamus superachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

    Using the Cellgraph system, a brain tissue slice from a transgenic mouse that express luciferase under control of the clock gene promoter were analyzed. The Brain was removed and sectioned into 100 µm thick slices using a Microslicer, each of which was then placed in a culture insert. The time-lapse images of an SCN section acquired over a period of five days using the Cellgraph system. Using the grid measurement function of “Cellgraph Viewer”, the bioluminescence intensity in each area was analyzed and quantified. 

    SCN imaging fig

     

    Time-lapse imaging of intracellular trafficking of importin α

    Visualization of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of importin α by the Cellgraph system. In this study, importin α gene fused with luciferase was expressed in NIH3T3 cells. The time-lapse images were acquired using three minutes exposure time at intervals of four minutes with a 40x objective lens without binning. The luminescence signal was initially detected in the cytosol, then in the nucleus. After that, the luminescence signal in the nucleus gradually increased. As shown above, the Cellgraph system is an ideal tool for observing biological events such as trafficking of proteins that occur over a prolonged period of time.

    Data Supported: Dr. Y. Nakajima, AIST, JAPAN References: Y. Nakajima et al. PLOS ONE, Vol. 5 (2010) 

    importin fig

     

    Visualization of ATP oscillations in the early stage of chondrogenesis

    Cellular condensation in embryonic limbs that occurs in the early stage of chondrogenesis is considered to play a critical role in the secretion of adhesion molecules and extracellular matrixes. The movie shows the visualization of ATP oscillation after the induction of chondrogenesis in ATCD5 cells transfected with an ATP-dependent Phyxothrix hirtus luciferase gene. As demonstrated in this study, the Cellgraph system is an effective tool for examining intracellular metabolic mechanisms.

    Data Supported:Dr. HJ.Kwon, Hokkaido Univ., JAPAN
    Reference:HJ.Kwonet. al., Cell Death and Disease, Vol.3 (2012) 

    ATP imaging fig

     

    Apoptosis analysis

    Cells were transfected with luciferase reporter gene fused to nuclear targeting signal sequence. Cells were stimulated with STS (1μM) and observed by Cellgraph. Cellgraph system enable us to visualize apoptotic phenomena such as nuclear fragmentation and membrane rupture in apoptotic cells by STS stimulation.

    Apoptosis fig

     

    Wound healing assay

    The result of the wound healing assay observed with Cellgraph are shown in this movie. NIH3T3 cells stably expressing luciferase were cultured until fully confluent. Wounds were created by scraping monolayer cells with a sterile pipette tip. Then wound closure was monitored by Cellgraph.

    Wound healing fig
    Published in News

    The Tibetan antelope lives at dizzying altitudes of 4000-5000mHow can the Tibetan antelope live at elevations of 4,000-5,000m on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau? Investigators rom Qinghai University, BGI, and other institutes now provide evidence of genetic factors that may be associated with the species' adaption to harsh highland environments. The data in this work will also provide implications for studying specific genetic mechanisms and the biology of other ruminant species.

    The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a native of the high mountain steppes and semi-desert areas of the Tibetan plateau. Interestingly, it is the only member of the genus Pantholops. Tibetan antelope is a medium sized antelope with the unique adaptations to against the harsh high-altitude climate. For non-native mammals such as humans, they may experience life-threatening acute mountain sickness when visiting high-altitude regions.

    In this study, researchers suggest that Tibetan antelopes must have evolved exceptional mechanisms to adapt to this extremely inhospitable habitat. Using next-gen sequencing technology, they have decoded the genome of Tibetan antelope and studied the underlying genetic mechanism of high-altitude adaptations.

    Through the comparison between Tibetan antelope and other plain-dwelling mammals, researchers found the Tibetan antelope had the signals of adaptive evolution and gene-family expansion in genes associated with energy metabolism and oxygen transmission, indicating that gene categories involved in energy metabolism appear to have an important role for Tibetan antelope via efficiently providing energy in conditions of low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2).

    Further research revealed that both the Tibetan antelope and the highland American pika have signals of positive selection for genes involved in DNA repair and the production of ATPase. Considering the exposure to high levels of ultraviolet radiation, positive selective genes related to DNA repair may be vital to protect the Tibetan antelope from it.

    Qingle Cai, Project manager from BGI, said, "The completed genome sequence of the Tibetan antelope provides a more complete blueprint for researchers to study the genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation. This work may also open a new way to understand the adaptation of the low partial pressure of oxygen in human activities."

    Published in News
    Tuesday, 21 May 2013 15:35

    mGMP GM-CSF, 50ug batch20040823

    Product number 04-RHUGM-CSF-50UG
    Product name mGMP GM-CSF, 50ug batch20040823
    Quantity  
    Supplier

    GENTAUR

     

     

    Test

    Specifications

    Results

    Identification

    Positive

    Positive

    Appearance

    Looks like a white to off-white crisp cake. After reconstitution, the solution is clear, colorless

    Complies

    Particulate Matter

     

     

               Visible particles

    Free of visible foreign particles

    Complies

     

               Sub-visible particles

    = 10µm: = 6000/vial

    = 25µm: = 600/vial

    393

    21

    Weight of content

    90% - 110% of he stated value

    Complies

    PH

    6.50 – 7.50

    7.22

    Moisture

    = 3.0%

    0.6%

    Potency

    80% - 150%

    ( 4.40-8.25x105IU/vial)

    114%

    (6.25x105IU/vial)

     

    Sterility

    Sterile

    Sterile

    Abnormal Toxicity Test

    Complies to EP 5th /CP 2005

    Complies

    Pyrogen Test (Rabbit)

    Complies to EP 5th

    Complies

    Bacterial Endotoxins

    Not more than 0.25 EU/vial

    Less than 0.25 EU/vial

    Conclusion

    Complies

    Complies

     

    For more information Contact us

    Published in Promos
    Monday, 20 May 2013 08:58

    New Stem Cells on the Block

    NT-hESCs 310Researchers have for the first time produced human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) using somatic nuclear transfer (SCNT), a method in which the nucleus of a donor cell—in this case a skin cell or fibroblast—is transferred to an egg cell whose own nucleus has been removed.

    The work, published in Cell, opens up the possibility of an alternative source of patient-specific stem cells to help scientists understand disease and develop personalized cell-based therapies. What’s more, hESCs produced via nuclear transfer (NT-hESCs) may not have the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities found in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), made by adding key genes to reprogram adult cells.

    “I think it is a beautiful piece of work,” said George Daley of Boston Children’s Hospital and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, who was not involved in the research, in an email to The Scientist. “This group has become remarkably proficient at a very technically demanding procedure and has shown that SCNT-ESCs may in fact be a practical source of cells for regenerative medicine.”

    SCNT has previously been used to clone animals and to successfully reprogram somatic cells into ESCs is mice and primates, but little is known about how it works and which factors in the egg cell are responsible stimulating the reversion of the implanted mature nucleus to a pluripotent state.

    Moreover, all previous attempts to produce NT-ESCs have failed. Researchers have been unable to get human SCNT embryos to progress past the 8-cell stage, never mind to the 150-cell blastocyte stage from which hESCs can be plucked. The causes of the roadblock are not clear, but likely involve certain key embryonic genes from the donor cell nucleus that could not be activated.

    To overcome these obstacles, Shoukhrat Mitalipov of Oregon Health and Science University and colleagues first examined failed attempts with human cells and successful work in rhesus macaques to identify factors that could be responsible.

    The researchers evaluated various activation and culture protocols that led to successful SCNT reprogramming in monkeys, and set about testing various combinations on human oocytes. They found that the optimized protocols that worked in monkeys also worked in humans. In particular, the incorporation of caffeine into the cocktails of chemicals used during host nucleus removal and donor transplantation and the use of electrical pulses to activate embryonic development in the recipient egg improved cellular reprograming and blastocyte development, allowing human SCNT embryos to reach a stage that yielded hESCs.

    “[The researchers] worked diligently to overcome the early embryo blockade that we and others have confronted as a barrier to human SCNT,” said Daley. “Their distinct culture media, which was supplemented with caffeine, and their optimized activation protocol appears to have been the needed breakthrough.”

    “It was a huge battery of changes to the protocols over a number of different steps,” said Mitalipov. “I was worried that we might need a couple of thousand eggs to make all these optimizations, to find that winning combination. But it actually took just 128 [eggs], which is a surprisingly low number to make 6 [hESC] lines.”

    The researchers then analyzed four of these cell lines and found that their NT-hESCs could successfully differentiate into beating heart cells in vitro and into a variety of cell types in teratoma tumors on live mice. The cells also closely resembled those derived from fetal fibroblasts, had no chromosomal abnormalities, and displayed fewer problematic epigenetic leftovers from parental somatic cells than are typically seen in iPSCs. Mitalipov said more comparisons are required, however.

    “We are now left to analyze the detailed molecular nature of SCNT-ES cells to determine how closely they resemble embryo-derived ES cells and whether they have any advantages over iPS cells,” added Daley. “iPS cells are easier to produce and have wide applications in research and regenerative medicine, and it remains to be shown whether SCNT-ES cells have any advantages.”

    But Milatipov pointed out one fundamental difference: while their nuclear genome comes from the donor cell, NT-hESCs contain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the egg cell. So unlike in iPSCs, nuclear transfer not only reprograms the cell but also corrects any mtDNA mutations that the donor may carry, meaning that patient-specific NT-hESCs could be used to treat people with diseases caused by mitochondrial mutations. “That’s one of the clear advantages with SCNT,” Milatipov said.

     

    Published in News
    Saturday, 18 May 2013 17:20

    InfectoSTOP 25ml

    Initiating a primary cell culture from a surgical tissue is often difficult because of contamination. It is therefore important to incubate the tissue in an appropriate solution containing an optimized mixture of antibiotics, each at a given concentration able to avoid infectious contamination without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, it is not always possible to initiate primary cell culture immediately after surgical excision so the tissue needs to be stored for several hours until further processed.

    Product Description

    InfectoSTOP (GENT 19 - INSTOP) is a ready-to-use solution containing an optimized mix of antibiotics against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasma and fungi for cell culture applications.

    Simply dilute the necessary volume (enough to cover the tissue) of InfectoSTOP in PBS or in cell culture medium.

    Intended Use

    InfectoSTOP is intended for use in primary cell culture initiation or to extend cell viability in fresh surgical material of any tissue type.

    InfectoSTOP can also be used for decontaminating established cell cultures.

    The product should be handled under sterile conditions and is not intended for animal or human use.

    Caution: If handled improperly, some components of this product may present a health hazard. Take appropriate precautions when handling this product, including the wearing of protective clothing and eyewear. Dispose of properly

    How to use InfectoSTOP

    To initiate primary cultures from fresh surgical material

    Dilute InfectoSTOP 10x in PBS (4 °C) and put the tissue in the freshly made solution. Rinse tissue immediately twice or more and then incubate 2 hours at 4 °C. Prepare a fresh solution, rinse once and incubate overnight (or at least one week without viability loss, depending on the type of tissue) at 4 °C.

    Just before initiating primary cell culture, rinse one more with InfectoSTOP.

    To eliminate contamination in anchorage-dependant cells
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 5x diluted fresh made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate at 37 °C for 1 hour
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 10x diluted freshly made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate at 37 °C for 3 hours
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 10x diluted freshly made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate overnight in cell culture with a 10x diluted freshly made dilution of InfectoSTOP in complete culture medium

    The above cell treatment can be repeated twice if necessary.

    The dilution and incubation time of InfectoSTOP must be adjust to your own cell culture

    To eliminate contamination in anchorage-independent cells

    Same procedure as above, but before rinsing and incubation, pellet the cells by brief centrifugation.

    Storage and Stability
    •  InfectoSTOP is stored under -20° C at our facility and is shipped on dry ice.
    •  If the product is to be used immediately, thaw in a 37° C water bath or overnight at 4° C.
    •  If thawed in a water bath, do not leave the product at 37° C for more than 1 hour.
    •  When stored at 4° C, InfectoSTOP is stable for at least 2 weeks.
    •  If the product is not to be used within 1 week after receipt, we recommend storing it at below -20° C in a freezer that is not self-defrosting.
    •  Do not thaw and refreeze more than once. When stored at below -20°C, the product is stable until the expiration date shown on the label.

    Handling:

    GLP techniques should be employed for the safe handling of this product.

    This includes observing the following practices:

    • - Wear appropriate laboratory cloches including a lab coat, gloves and safety glasses.
    • - Do not mouth pipette, inhale, ingest or allow to come into contact with open wounds. Wash thoroughly any area of the body, which comes into contact with the product.
    • - Avoid accidental autoinoculation by exercising extreme care when handling in conjunction with any injection device.
    • - Handle the product under sterile area.
    • - This product is intended for research purposes and should be handled by qualified personnel only. It is not intended for use in humans or in animals. Gentaur is not liable for any damages resulting from the misuse or handling of this product.
    Components

    One bottle of 25 ml.

    Order Button1

    Published in Promos
    Friday, 17 May 2013 16:14

    Human Tenascin C Elisa Kit (TNC)

    P63316

    Antigen: Tenascin C (TNC)

    Synonyms: TN, HXB, MGC167029, Hxb, Ten, TN-C, AI528729, MGC144208, MGC144209, cytotactin, tenascin-C, C130033P17Rik, tenc, wu:fk04d02, TNC, tn, MGC140517

    Quantity: 96 Tests/kit

    Components:

    1. Assay plate (12 x 8 coated Microwells). Quantity: 1(96 wells)
    2. Standard (Freeze dried). Quantity: 2
    3. Biotin-antibody (100 x concentrate) Quantity: 1 x 120 µl
    3.HRP-avidin (100 x concentrate). Quantity: 1 x 120 µl
    4. Biotin-antibody Diluent. Quantity: 1 x 10 ml
    5. HRP-avidin Diluent. Quantity: 1 x 10 ml
    6. Sample Diluent. Quantity: 1 x 20 ml
    7. Wash Buffer (25 x concentrate). Quantity: 1 x 20 ml
    8. TMB Substrate. Quantity: 1 x 10 ml
    9. Stop Solution. Quantity: 1 x 10 ml
    10. Adhesive Strip (For 96 wells). Quantity: 4
    11. Instruction manual

    Description Synonyms: CMD1Z, TNC, TNNC, cardiac troponin C|slow twitch skeletal/cardiac muscle troponin C|troponin C, slow|troponin C1, slow

    Sensitivity: The sensitivity of this assay, or Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) was defined as the lowest protein concentration that could be differentiated from zero. It was determined the mean O.D value of 20 replicates of the zero standard added by their three standard deviations.

    Minimum Detection Limit: 0.195 ng/mL

    Detection Range: 0.78 ng/mL - 50 ng/mL

    Assay Precision: 
    Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8% Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
    Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10% Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.

    Price: 1087 EUR

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    Published in Top Products
    Thursday, 16 May 2013 16:59

    TotalLab Quant v12.3

    1D Analysis Module

    General
    - Fully automatic, single button press complete image analysis within area of interest if required
    - Instant access to refinement of any analysis step
    - Alternative step-wise image analysis for each step
    - Facility to load and save user preferences, including parameters and display options, prior to analysis
    - Automatic PDF report generator
    - Ruler options to display lane names, numbers and MWs
    - Multiple copies of the program can now be run at the same time to better compare results

    Multiplex Analysis
    - Create multiplex gels from up to 4 channel images
    - Create lanes across all channels
    - Measurement results for each channel in all tables
    - Propagate Molecular Size results across channels or per channel

    For more information download PDF file

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    Published in Promos