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    Displaying items by tag: Gentaur

    lymph vessels gentaur pcr elisa premix antibodies cell gene modificationFDA gave official permission for Lymphoseek (technetium 99, 99Ts) - radiodiagnostik injection intended for the detection of lymph vessels containing cancer cells. The product can be used to track the progress of breast malignancies and melanoma.

    Lymph nodes lymphatic filtered liquid from body tissues. When this fluid comes from tissue containing tumor, she has cancer cells. By surgical removal of lymph nodes and study them under a microscope, doctors can determine whether they contain cancer cells if the tumor spreads.

    Lymphoseek allows this analysis without removal of lymph nodes. It is the first product for mapping lymph nodes approved in 30 years. Administered through intravenous injection.

    The safety and effectiveness of Lymphoseek is established by clinical study involving 332 patients with melanoma or breast cancer. Half of the participants were injected with Lymphoseek, and the other half - with blue dye, localized tumor cells in lymph nodes. Only in the study, surgeons remove lymph nodes of patients and analyze them under a microscope. The results indicate that dye and Lymphoseek found most of the nodes containing malignant cells, and that Lymphoseek found most of the lymph nodes that the dye can not identify.

    In normal clinical setting, it is intended to be used without removing the lymph nodes.
     
    During the study, the most common side effects are irritation and pain at the injection site.
     
    The product is manufactured by Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, USA.

    Published in News
    Wednesday, 20 March 2013 17:03

    Make your own microscope - from iPhone

    gentaur-iphone-anti-microscopeSmartphones are changing the way people communicate. Now scientists further enhance their applicability in unexpected directions - diagnosis of intestinal parasites.
     
    It turns out that using a glass lens, costing $ 8, tape and cheap flashlight, iPhone 4 can be converted into a microscope detecting intestinal parasites according to the World Health Organization affects two billion people.

    The scientists have published their results in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. In the article they describe the analysis of 199 fecal samples using a "tuned" smartphone.
     
    Along with the standard light microscope, researchers analyzing and using the "iPhone microscope." The latter turns out to be less sensitive, but much more practical and portable. Scientists believe that it has great potential, especially in poor and remote areas where it is concentrated the bulk of morbidity.

    The World Health Organization warned that intestinal parasites affecting mostly in economically depressed areas where they contribute substantially to malnutrition in large populations. Most at risk are children who often develop anemia.
     
    Feasibility of smartphones to diagnose intestinal parasitic appears dependent on the type of pathogen and the degree of infestation. For example, using the smartphone to detect 81% of cases of threadworm, but only 14% of cases of small parasitic nematodes, snap on to the intestine with hooks. Scientists say this is due to the different number of eggs that emit various types of environmental faeces.

    High-tech gadget successfully diagnosed moderate to severe infestations, but performs poorly in passenger where the sample contains only a few eggs.

    Dr. Isaac Bogoch, a specialist in infectious diseases at Toronto General Hospital, and his team are trying to create an alternative test tool by gluing 3-millimeter lens to the iPhone 4S, which scientists routinely use in their daily lives. Bogoch points out, however, that any camera phone with optical zoom can be used for this purpose. As a light source they use less flashlight, working with only one battery. The entire "unit" cost less than $ 15, without of course the price of the phone itself, and can be assembled in less than 5 minutes.

    According to team efficiency by 80% for diagnostic tests would make this device practicable. Dr. Bogoch predicted that it can be applied in a work under a limited budget. Furthermore, the team continues to improve device using cheap available materials.

    Published in News

    monoclonal antibodyResearchers have discovered a unique monoclonal antibody that can effectively reach inside a cancer cell, a key goal for these important anticancer agents, since most proteins that cause cancer or are associated with cancer are buried inside cancer cells. Scientists from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Eureka Therapeutics have collaborated to create the new human monoclonal antibody, which targets a protein associated with many types of cancer and is of great interest to cancer researchers.

    Unlike other human therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, which can target only proteins that remain on the outside of cancer cells, the new monoclonal antibody, called ESK1, targets a protein that resides on the inside of the cell. ESK1 is directed at a protein called WT1, which is overexpressed in a range of leukemias and other cancers including myeloma and breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. WT1 is a high priority target for cancer drugs because it is an oncogenic protein, meaning that it supports the formation of cancer. In addition, it is found in few healthy cells, so there are less likely to be side effects from drugs that target it. "This is a new approach for attacking WT1, an important cancer target, with an antibody therapy. This is something that was previously not possible," said David A. Scheinberg, MD, PhD, Chair of the Sloan-Kettering Institute's Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program and an inventor of the antibody. "There has not been a way to make small molecule drugs that can inhibit WT1 function. Our research shows that you can use a monoclonal antibody to recognize a cancer-associated protein inside a cell, and it will destroy the cell." 

    The first studies of the antibody are showing promise in preclinical research as a treatment for leukemia as reported March 13, 2013, in Science Translational Medicine. "ESK1 represents a paradigm change for the field of human monoclonal antibody therapeutics," said Cheng Liu, PhD, President and Chief Executive Officer of Eureka Therapeutics. "This research suggests that human antibody therapy is no longer limited to targeting proteins present outside cancer cells, but can now target proteins within the cancer cell itself."

    ESK1 was engineered to mimic the functions of a T cell receptor, a key component of the immune system. T cells have a receptor system that is designed to recognize proteins that are inside the cell. As proteins inside the cell get broken down as part of regular cellular processes, molecules known as HLA molecules carry fragments of those proteins -- known as peptides -- to the surface. When T cells recognize certain peptides as abnormal, the T cell kills the diseased cell. In the current study, the investigators showed that ESK1 alone was able to recognize WT1 peptides and kill cancer cells in the test tube and also in mouse models for two different types of human leukemia. "We were surprised that the antibody worked so well on its own," said Dr. Scheinberg, senior author of the paper. "We had originally expected that we might need to use the antibody as a carrier to deliver a drug or a radioactive therapy to kill the cancer cells, but this was not necessary."

    Additional studies must be done in the laboratory before ESK1 is ready to be tested in patients. But the monoclonal antibody was engineered to be fully human, which should speed the time it takes to move the drug into the clinic. Researchers expect that the first clinical trials, for leukemia, could begin in about a year.

    The antibody was developed under a collaborative effort between Memorial Sloan-Kettering and Eureka, which have jointly filed for patent protection. This work was supported by grants from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, the National Cancer Institute, the Sloan-Kettering Institute's Experimental Therapeutics Center and Technology Development Fund, the Commonwealth Foundation for Cancer Research, the Tudor and Glades Foundations, the Merker Fund, the Lymphoma Foundation, and the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation.

    http://www.sciencedaily.com

    Published in News

    gentaur-knockin-knockout-mouse-targatt-cloningResearchers in Japan have produced 26 successful generations of cloned mice from a single individual. That's a total of 598 mice, all of whom are essentially genetic duplicates. The achievement was made possible by a new cloning technique that allowed researchers to overcome genetic degradation problems characteristic of generational re-cloning. The breakthrough shows that mammalian cloning lines can be extended and reproduced without limit.

    Indeed, animal re-cloning (i.e. cloning a clone) works great, but up to a point. Eventually, over the course of several generations, a clonal line will ultimately fail, the result of accumulated lethal genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. But the Japanese researchers devised a crafty biohack that appears to remedy this problem.

    The new technique, developed by Teruhiko Wakayama of the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, was so successful that it resulted in well over two dozen generations of re-cloned mice. Moreover, the cloning efficiency did not decrease over the course of those generations, and the project was allowed to continue indefinitely (and in fact, the project is still going!). In all, nearly 600 viable offspring were produced from a single donor mouse. The experiment started seven years ago and it is considered the largest cloning project using a mammal to date.

    Wakayama and his team achieved this by using the standard cloning technique, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and adding a histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin), and other chemicals to the process.

    In SCNT, the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an egg that has had its nucleus removed (an enucleated egg). Once inside the egg, the somatic nucleus is reprogrammed to become a zygote nucleus, what is really a fertilized egg.

    But as noted, this can’t be done indefinitely, as genetic problems start to creep in over successive generations. But adding the HDI to the mix seemed to do the trick. It's a class of compounds that interfere with the function of histone deacetylase, a class of enzymes that allow histones (proteins that package and order the DNA into nucleosomes) to wrap DNA more tightly. They can also be used to alter gene expression.

    According to the researchers, the cloned mice had normal biological features, including regular lifespans and reproductive capabilities. That said, genetic analysis did show some minor abnormalities, including an oversized placenta. But none of these characteristics had a detrimental impact on the line’s clonal health. The researchers noted that “serially recloned mice have the same characteristics as standard clones.”

    Their results show that repeated iterative re-cloning is possible. The researchers wrote that “with adequately efficient techniques, it may be possible to re-clone animals indefinitely.”

    Once refined, the technique could result in the large-scale production of cloned animals for farming or conservation purposes. Moreover, animals can continue to be cloned long after the source individual has died.

     

    Published in News
    Monday, 18 March 2013 15:00

    Invented a pill to quickly sober

    gentaur-alcohol-pillsStudies of "drug" are still in a very early stage and tests are performed only on mice.

    Soon fans will be able to cup sober just one pill. Researchers made ​​a cocktail of alcohol metabolizing enzymes rapidly reduce the level of alcohol in the blood while drunk mouse forward "Daily Mail". 

    "Treatment", which compares with having millions of liver cells in your stomach, you may have a lasting impact on fans of spirits. Yangfeng Lou - professor of chemistry and biomolecular engineering, and Cheng Zhi - Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Southern California, injected mice with drunk nanocapsule containing two enzymes. One of the enzymes - oxidase comes as a by-product of hydrogen peroxide, which can be harmful. That's why he has to work with another enzyme to break down hydrogen peroxide. The study shows that drunken mice that were injected with these nanocapsule, sobered much faster than those who did not receive enzyme "treatment". The breakthrough is still in a very early stage and can not speak for its application in humans.

    But expert Lou argues that experience can lead to the invention of a new drug to act as an antidote to alcohol. He states that "drug" can be taken as a simple pill. "It's like you have millions of liver cells in your stomach that help you revise alcohol," said Professor Lu.

    Published in News

    Recent studies have revealed the existence of at least four structurally distinct types of collagen (see reviews by Gross, 1974; Gallop & Paz, 1975). Type I tropocollagen, consisting oftwo identical al(I) chains and one a2 chain, is the predominant form in bone, dentin, tendon and adult dermis, whereas type II, composed of three al(II) chains, is found in cartilage and intervertebral disc. Type III, made of three al(III) chains, is present in dermis, blood vessels and synovium, and type IV, the basement-membrane collagen, contains three al(IV) chains. It is apparent from the distribution of these collagens that some tissues contain more than one type of collagen (Bradley et al., 1974; Epstein, 1974; Seyer et al., 1974a,b; Trelstad, 1974; Eyre & Muir, 1975b,c). This heterogeneity, together with variations in the post-translational modifications of the collagen molecule and the insolubility of the collagen fibres (Henneman, 1972), complicates the study of the primary structure of tissue collagen. With a view to facilitating the study of human genetic connective-tissue diseases with suspected primary-structure anomalies of collagen (McKusick, 1972), we have developed a technique of analysing the primary structure of collagen by using highpressure liquid-chromatographic separation of the peptides released from collagen by clostridial collagenase. We describe the specific 'fingerprints' obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography of the peptides released from human type I, II and III collagen by clostridiopeptidase A. We also show that this technique is suitable for the analysis ofminute amounts of collagen.

    Click here to download PDF file

    Published in News

    mouseWe want it or not, teeth wear out with age comes a time when you need to replace them with artificial ones. But now there may be an alternative to artificial prostheses - and it is real teeth, "grown" in a lab and created by human cells wreath.
     
    Studies were conducted with mouse stem cells are derived from embryos and specially selected so as to be able to produce growth in other cells to grow out of their teeth. So the combination of murine stem cells and human gingival cells in the laboratory has produced a real tooth - shaped with enamel and roots. The roots were fully alive, suggesting that transplanted into human mouth, most likely belonged to the bone.
     
    The results of this discovery may mean turning point in the treatment of periodontal disease and produce new teeth in people who for some reason have lost their. Of course, the stem cells in the formation of teeth, suitable for implantation in humans must be human rather than mouse and extracting stem cells from human embryos for scientific purposes is not perceived as ethical. Scientists argue that stem cells can be easily extracted from the pulp of human wisdom as to produce the same effect.

    Published in News

    camel-antibodies-gentaur-1A research team led by the Canadian Museum of Nature has identified the first evidence for an extinct giant camel in Canada's High Arctic. The discovery is based on 30 fossil fragments of a leg bone found on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut and represents the most northerly record for early camels, whose ancestors are known to have originated in North America some 45 million years ago.

    The fossils were collected over three summer field seasons (2006, 2008 and 2010) and are about three-and-a-half million years old, dating from the mid-Pliocene Epoch. Other fossil finds at the site suggest this High Arctic camel lived in a boreal-type forest environment, during a global warm phase on the planet.

    The research by Dr. Natalia Rybczynski and co-authors including Dr. John Gosse at Dalhousie University, Halifax and Dr. Mike Buckley at the University of Manchester, England is described in the March 5, 2013 edition of the online journal Nature Communications.

    "This is an important discovery because it provides the first evidence of camels living in the High Arctic region," explains Rybczynski, a vertebrate paleontologist with the Canadian Museum of Nature, who has led numerous field expeditions in Canada's Arctic. "It extends the previous range of camels in North America northward by about 1,200 km, and suggests that the lineage that gave rise to modern camels may been originally adapted to living in an Arctic forest environment."

    The camel bones were collected from a steep slope at the Fyles Leaf Bed site, a sandy deposit near Strathcona Fiord on Ellesmere Island. Fossils of leaves, wood and other plant material have been found at this site, but the camel is the first mammal recovered. A nearby fossil-rich locality at Strathcona Fiord, known as the Beaver Pond site, has previously yielded fossils of other mammals from the same time period, including a badger, deerlet, beaver and three-toed horse.

    Determining that the bones were from a camel was a challenge. "The first time I picked up a piece, I thought that it might be wood. It was only back at the field camp that I was able to ascertain it was not only bone, but also from a fossil mammal larger than anything we had seen so far from the deposits," explains Rybczynski, relating the moment that she and her team had discovered something unusual.

    Some important physical characteristics suggested the fossil fragments were part of a large tibia, the main lower-leg bone in mammals, and that they belonged to the group of cloven-hoofed animals known as arteriodactyls, which includes cows, pigs and camels. Digital files of each of the 30 bone fragments were produced using a 3D laser scanner, allowing for the pieces to be assembled and aligned. The size of the reconstituted leg bone suggested it was from a very large mammal. At the time in North America, the largest arteriodactyls were camels.

    Full confirmation that the bones belonged to a camel came from a new technique called "collagen fingerprinting" pioneered by Dr. Mike Buckley at the University of Manchester in England. Profiles produced by this technique can be used to distinguish between groups of mammals.

    Minute amounts of collagen, the dominant protein found in bone, were extracted from the fossils. Using chemical markers for the peptides that make up the collagen, a collagen profile for the fossil bones was developed. This profile was compared with those of 37 modern mammal species, as well as that of a fossil camel found in the Yukon, which is also in the Canadian Museum of Nature's collections.

    The collagen profile for the High Arctic camel most closely matched those of modern camels, specifically dromedaries (camels with one hump) as well as the Yukon giant camel, which is thought to be Paracamelus, the ancestor of modern camels. The collagen information, combined with the anatomical data, allowed Rybczynski and her colleagues to conclude that the Ellesmere bones belong to a camel, and is likely the same lineage as Paracamelus.

    "We now have a new fossil record to better understand camel evolution, since our research shows that the Paracameluslineage inhabitated northern North America for millions of years, and the simplest explanation for this pattern would be that Paracamelus originated there," explains Rybczynski. "So perhaps some specializations seen in modern camels, such as their wide flat feet, large eyes and humps for fat may be adaptations derived from living in a polar environment."

    The scientific paper also reports for the first time an accurate age of both the Fyles Leaf Bed site and the Beaver Pond site -- at least 3.4 million years old. This was determined by Dr. John Gosse at Dalhousie University using a sophisticated technique that involves dating the sands found associated with the bone. The date is significant because it corresponds to a time period when Earth was 2ºC à 3ºC warmer than today, and the Arctic was 14ºC à 22ºC warmer. The bones of the High Arctic camel are housed in the Canadian Museum of Nature's research and collections facility in Gatineau, Quebec on behalf of the Government of Nunavut.

    Published in News

    1. Guidelines for using the Bullet Blender Homogenizer

    Published in Promos
    Monday, 11 March 2013 15:53

    Retrovirus Packaging

    We provide high quality Retrovirus packing services.


    Retroviral vectors are one of the efficient methods of gene delivery to mammalian cells both in vitro and in vivo. Through years of experience with lentiviral and retroviral vectors, Targatt has developed own proprietary packaging systems and efficient protocols for the rapid generation of pseudoviral particles.

    Targatt offers express Retrovirus packaging service to produce high-quality, high-titer virus particles using your viral construct with turnaround time of 10 days. Save your time, receive ready-to-transduce viral particles.

     
    Features of Targatt’s virus packaging services
    • Production of virus in a state-of-the art BSL-2 facility with robust quality control in accordance with NIH Biosafety Level 2 criteria
    • Flexibility of virus production scales to meet your research needs
    • Accurate Virus titers as determined by qPCR to measure infectious units per ml ( ifus/ml)
     
    Note:
    • Depending on level of titer requested, please provide 10-40 μg of endotoxin-free lentivector or retrovector plasmid DNA
    • All custom virus production services should come with information on the plasmids which have to be packaged.
    • Vector must be able to produce virus (no internal poly A signal, no toxic genes, no unusual 2nd structure, or 5' to 3' LTR size over 8kb.)
    Published in Targatt services