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    News

    Protein IL7 PDB 1IL7-gentaur-antibodiesThe molecule interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an important immune system messengers that a sufficient number of T cells guaranteed at present in the body's defenses. ETH Zurich researchers have now shown that IL-7 has another important function: it improves the function of the lymphatic drainage collect moisture that has leaked from the blood vessels into the body tissues and back into the bloodstream. In the future, these insights for lymphedema patients, the lymphatic system is not working properly useful, what tissue to become fluid retention and swelling.

    The predisposition to the development of lymphedema can on the one hand, are hereditary. On the other hand, lymphedema often. During the period after a tumor operation Primary tumors are surgically excised tumor and lymph nodes are often removed because they can contain metastases. Tumor in the course of such a surgical procedure is the lymphatic tissue is damaged. This tissue fluid is often not properly arranged, so that the occurrence of lymphedema in 20 to 30 percent of patients.

    No drug treatment yet

    Currently wearing the only treatment options for patients with lymphedema compression stockings and undergoing a medical manual lymphatic drainage massage therapist. "In IL-7, we have a molecule and a mechanism for improving lymphatic drainage for lymphedema therapy, useful to be discovered," says study leader Cornelia Halin, Assistant Professor of Drug Discovery Technologies.

    In their study, the researchers found that IL-7, which shape is formed by the so-called endothelial cells. The lymphatic vessel wall These cells also bear receptors, IL-7 in a certain way based on the lock-and-key principle. "Although we have not formally proven that so far, we assume that the lymphatic endothelial cells produce the neurotransmitter, may directly affect their own function," says Halin. To date, IL-7 is one of only a few molecules have been identified that support lymphatic drainage. A few years ago, researchers discovered that the other endogenous growth factor VEGF-C, a molecule of interest in this context is perhaps also.

    Findings from an animal model

    Halin and her colleagues showed the drainage support function of IL-7 by drainage experiments in mice, where blue, albumin-binding dye in the skin of the mouse injected ear. It is noteworthy that albumin, a naturally occurring protein that is transported from the tissues via the lymphatics. By quantifying the dye in the tissue remained one day after the injection, the researchers were able to determine how well worked the lymphatic these animals.

    In carrying out this experiment, mice, in which a functional IL-7 receptor, it is noted that these mice to only remove half the dye out of the ear skin in order to compare with a functional mouse IL-7 receptor. However, they observed a significant increase in lymphatic drainage in mice with increased IL-7 production. Finally she IL-7 protein is in a third experiment, unchanged administered healthy mice and found that a therapeutic treatment done to improve lymphatic drainage function.

    Been tested in patients

    The researchers are now planning similar experiments in mice in which lymph vessels are surgically destroyed, similar to the situation in patients after cancer surgery. Here, the researchers want to test whether treatment with IL-7 or IL-7 could lymphedema would be prevented. Reduce the existing lymphedema administered

    The long-term goal is to explore the potential of IL-7-based drugs for lymphedema. In particular, IL-7 has been tested in clinical trials, although for different indications: due to its immune-stimulatory activity on T cells, IL-7 is currently undergoing in patients with immunodeficiency diseases such as HIV or hepatitis infection or bone marrow tested transplants.

    sunburn-knock-out-rat-taq-pcr-elisa-targatt-culture-pcr-knockin-mouse-targatt-knockin-rat-pcr-premix-knockout-mouse-mice-virus-detection-teratomaRedness, pain, and burns after unreasonably long exposure to solar radiation can be consigned to history when scientists recently discovered molecule in the composition of the skin, which is responsible for these reactions.
     
    Blocking molecule TRPV4, which is abundant in the epidermis proven protects skin from harmful effects of the sun.

    According to team leader Professor Wolfgang Liedtke, neurobiologist at the Medical University of North Carolina, their discovery enables the introduction of new products, which offer much greater protection for the skin.
     
    Most skin burns were induced by ultraviolet radiation type B or UVB, which are useful in small amounts and facilitate the synthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, as well as reducing the risk of many infectious diseases, because of the sterilizing effect.

    However, too long exposure to UVB - over 30 minutes a day, cause DNA damage in skin cells, which dramatically increases the risk of developing skin cancer.
     
    In the laboratory, scientists were able to completely block TRPV4 molecule in skin tissue through genetic engineering application. After irradiation normal and genetically modified skin with UVB rays with the same intensity and duration, the researchers reported excellent results: normal skin demonstrated redness, swelling and blisters normal for a typical sunburn while special skin devoid of TRPV4 was only slightly irritated.

    Scientists already tested with great success and an ointment that is applied to the already burnt skin and removes the pain completely.
     
    If their development be released will allow spend many more hours in the sun without leading to a risk of burns or skin cancer. Researchers note that the extended stay in the sun is beneficial not only for the synthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but also to lower the blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    malaria-mosquito-cell-line-gene-modification-cel-line-model-disease-cells-patient-cellsU.S. researchers said they have achieved very good results in clinical testing of an experimental vaccine against malaria, world agencies reported.

    The disease caused by the parasite each year causing 600,000 deaths, mostly among children in Africa. The vaccine is derived from a number of attenuated parasites Plasmodium fa, an infection spread by female mosquitoes of the genus Anofelesi. It is one hundred percent protection achieved in six out of nine adult volunteers who received the highest dose of it. In these primary tests involved 40 people aged between 20 and 44 years.

    "Although we are in the early stages of the development of the vaccine, we are confident that our vaccine will help us to fight malaria," said Stephen Hoffman, executive director of the laboratory "Sanary" in which are held
    research. They are funded by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and other organizations from the U.S., Europe and Africa.

    Scientists 30 years trying to develop antimalarial vaccine. But only now have a very safe immunization tool that is injected and can save millions of lives, "said Hoffman.

    Although extremely hopeful results, some experts are still skeptical of the small number of subjects on which it was tested the new vaccine.
    For this reason, the scientific team will undertake additional clinical trials in Germany, the U.S. and Africa. Those skilled will test and a different frequency of vaccination in order to achieve one hundred percent protection against at least 5 doses of the novel vaccine.

    So far, the way to extract parasites from the salivary glands of mosquitoes is quite slow and requires the efforts of 12 to 15 professionals who manage to dissect around 150 insects per hour. Another difficulty is that the vaccine must be stored in liquid nitrogen. Laboratory "Sanary" already collaborates with Harvard University to automate the process.

    avian-flu-body-formation-snl-feeder-pluripotency-marker-cf-1-gene-knock-in-technology-ipsc-generationThese laboratory studies have opponents, there is no guarantee that nature will follow the theoretical approach.

    While some scholars argue that it should be kept for research purposes genetically manipulated viruses of avian influenza in several laboratories around the world are already conducting similar experiments, reported the German magazine "Focus". Several teams working in parallel with genetically manipulated virus H7N9. Ron Fucino, one of the scientists involved in the experiments confirmed that his colleagues in several places around the world already are testing resistance to drugs.

    Other attempts were allegedly in the pipeline, says Fucino who specializes Flu Medical Center "Erasmus" in Rotterdam. They will study the behavior of the virus modified so as to be easily transmitted from person to person. From mid-March in China already has at least 130 people infected with the dangerous strain H7N9.

    This week leading experts called in the journal "Nature" to be carried out similar experiments in which the causative agent is modified in vitro so as to be more infectious and resistant to treatment with drugs. They hope that science will overtake both real life and will be prepared to respond to any mutations in the strain of bird flu, which has threatened a number of Asian countries.

    Such an approach, however, meeting and much criticism. According to the China Center for combating infectious diseases in natural mutation of a virus can take years. In the laboratory, it happened in an instant. There is no guarantee that the actual mutations will follow artificial scientific model.

    According to Ron Fucino however scientific experiments are very useful and are based on actual forecasts. Attempts would make it possible to produce more effective vaccines and scientific teams would predict risks of transmission of the virus from person to person. New form of H7N9 bird flu was confirmed in humans for the first time in March 2013 Health officials believe that spillover occurred from birds to humans. Thousands of birds were killed and live poultry markets were closed. An outcome measure, the number of new infected dropped almost to zero. In April, the WHO issued a warning that in some cases the virus can be passed from person to person. Scientists from China have joined this opinion and wrote in the British Medical Journal, the risk of bird flu is by no means

    sea-snail-antibodies-gentaur-kneePictured in the foreground is the snail. In the background is the child from whence the snail emerged.

    The child's name is Paul Franklin. A few weeks back Paul was visiting the beach with his family when he tripped and dashed his right knee against a rock. His parents cleaned and bandaged the injury. A week later Paul fell again while iceskating, and again his parents dressed the wound. A day later the knee had swollen and Paul had developed a limp. He was hurried to a nearby hospital, where doctors prescribed him a course of antibiotics.

    What happened next is recounted in greater details at The Orange County Register, but here's the play-by-play summary:

    • After a couple days, the would looked like it was getting better. But then it got way, way worse. The wound looked necrotic, and was badly swollen. Doctors advised Paul's parents not to drain the wound by squeezing it. When the wound started looking even nastier than it does at right in the side-by-side, Paul's mom said to hell with doctor's orders and squeezed away. Boom. Out pops a snail.

    At first she thought it was a rock. But nope. It was a snail. A live snail that had been wriggling around in her son's knee since... well... the leading theory is that when Paul smacked his knee against a seaside rock, an egg must have been jammed into the flesh and just kind of... incubated. Nobody's really sure how or if that's possible, but according to the OC Register, Paul's mom is now "trying to find a marine biologist" who can tell her as much.

    bird-flu-rosa26-feeder-cells-human-primary-cells-mef cells-rat-knock-out-stem-cellDeadly H7N9 occurs for the first time in March

    Chinese scientists have found the most convincing evidence so far that the deadly new strain of bird flu, "jump" from person to person. Experts emphasize, however, that the virus still can not be easily transmitted between humans, BTA reported.

    The first scientific analysis of the transmission of the strain H7N9, showed for the first time in China in March this year, is published in the journal "British Medical Journal".
    The study analyzed the case of a father and daughter from East China died after infection with H7N9. Experts have not been able to talk to them since they were both in serious condition, but questioned the family members and loved ones
    friends. The analysis has shown that it is highly likely that the virus will be transmitted directly from the 60-year-old man, his daughter.

    In a commentary accompanying the publication, experts note that "the study does not necessarily mean that H7N9 will be the next culprit an influenza pandemic, but stresses the need for extreme vigilance."
    "The threat, which is H7N9, does not over," commented James Radzh and Richard Coker of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

    The authors of this study from the Centre for prevention and control of diseases in Jiangsu province, however, stressed that the new strain has not yet acquired the ability to transmit efficiently from person to person. This means that the risk of the virus in its current form can cause human pandemic is very low.

    The new H7N9 strain of bird flu occurs in March in China. According to WHO, the virus has so far infected 133 people in the country and Taiwan, killing 43 of them. Most cases of infection among people who have visited markets for live birds or had close contact with live birds between seven and 10 days to get sick.

    The study, published in the journal "British Medical Journal" analyzed "family" case of two patients - a father and daughter from East China. 60-year-old man regularly visited the market for live poultry and got sick between five and six days after the last contact with birds. He was admitted to hospital on March 11. Following the deterioration of symptoms the patient was transferred to the intensive ward on March 15. He died of multiple organ failure on May 4.

    The second patient - his healthy 32-year-old daughter, not having visited markets for poultry, but has been in direct contact with his father, caring for him in the hospital before his transfer to the ICU. The woman developed symptoms of infection
    six days after the last contact with his father. Admitted to the hospital on March 24, moved in ICU on March 28 and died of multiple organ failure on April 24.

    Strains of the virus isolated from samples of both patients were "almost genetically identical" - convincing evidence that H7N9 has passed directly from father to daughter.

    "To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible transmission of the new virus from person to person, accompanied by detailed epidemiological, clinical and virological data," wrote the authors of the study published in the journal "British Medical Journal".

    stem-cells-reprogrammed-using-chemicals-dr4-stem-cell-differentiation-neural-stem-cellsCardiovascular problems - the most common cause of death for residents of Earth

    American biologists for the first time in the world have created an artificial heart reprogrammed stem cells of human, using purified from cells of mouse heart as a "skeleton" of the future body, reported the journal Nature Communications.

    According to the World Health Organization cardiovascular problems are the most common cause of death for residents of Earth. In 2008, for instance, over 17 million people have died of a heart attack or other cardiovascular diseases, and by 2030 the number could rise to 23 million.

    Lei Yang of the University of Pittsburgh (USA) and his colleagues have made a big step towards reducing mortality from heart disease, having received a heart from reprogrammed stem cells to person.

    Key step towards solving this problem was the creation of a special "blanks" - MCP-cells capable of becoming three key tissues of the heart - smooth muscle of vessel walls and in the so-called. cardiomyocytes, the core muscles of the body.

    Another important component of the methodology Lei Yang and his colleagues is the "skeleton" of the heart, which is made from an old organ. For this purpose, researchers have handled it with a combination of chemicals that destroy cells and are left only locking them "skeleton." Then the "template" has been filled with cells - "preformed" and special preparations regulating their height. For the week the majority of these cells infiltrated "template" and is attached to it. 20 days give a "skeleton" has become a full heart, passed through itself and blood shortened to 40-50 times per minute.

    A further task of scientists is to test whether they can use this method to obtain the part of the human myocardium.

    tattoo-ipsc-transgenic-mouse-dr4-stem-cell-differentiation-neural-stem-cells-rat-models-gene-targeting

    The ink used to make the tattoo may mask signs of melanoma.
     
    29 year old German went through laser removal tattoo not after experts found the risk of melanoma.
     
    Prior to completely eradicate tattoos chest and arms the young doctors can not be sure whether the condition is malignant because the ink changing skin pigmentation and prevents to make relevant research.

    The removal of any of the pictures it took seven years for a total of 43 sessions with a laser.
     
    By biopsy clean tattoos skin specialists establish superficial malignant melanoma, the most common form of melanoma.

    Superficial spreading melanoma affects the top layer of skin. 50% of cases from the existing mole. When the body is depicted with tattoos, however, this makes it difficult to see the change in color of the skin around the mole, an indication of the risk of cancer, experts explain.

    The authors reported the case in JAMA Dermatology 2013, reported 16 more cases of melanoma patients with tattoos where the laser removal has led to a delay in diagnosis and death.
     
    Experts note that the ink used to make the tattoo covers indicators for melanoma, but there is no evidence that it is the cause of this cancer.

    Monday, 19 August 2013 14:25

    Vitamin D is useful, but only by measure!

    25-hydroxyvitamin-D-woman-enjoying-the-sunIn recent years, people are constantly being bombarded by mass media with threats that if you do not take vitamin D as a dietary supplement, will develop a deficit and will get sick. Only that vitamin D is one of those substances that adopted more harm. How accurate is the measure of the amount of beneficial to health?

    Scientific team from the hospital, "John Hopkins" found that "sunlight vitamin" - vitamin D, taken in doses higher than normal, it provides additional advantages for health. Half an hour a day sunlight is sufficient to enable the formation of the minimum required amounts of vitamin D in the body. He also assumes the food.

    According to scientists, vitamin D should be taken only on prescription. Dr. Muhammad Amer by the same research team showed that the only ones who need a slightly higher intake of vitamin D are people over 65, women undergoing or have undergone menopause and people with kidney disease. Elevated blood levels of this vitamin is mainly to promote bone health.

    Dr. Amer stated that sufficient exposure to sunlight, strong bones, exclusion of vulnerable groups, the intake of vitamin D without prescription is risky for health.

    Report of the American Heart Journal in 2012 found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the blood of more than 21 nanograms per milliliter not only reduce its usefulness, but also directly harm him. Such high doses are able to suppress and reduce the amount of protein bound by the Cardiovascular inflammation - C-reactive protein or CRP. This leads to loss of elasticity of blood vessels, which is a factor of increase in blood pressure and the onset of cardiac problems.

    Another factor is the relationship of the vitamin C levels of homocysteine ​​- non-protein amino acid that is a factor in many cardiovascular diseases. High levels of homocysteine ​​are always available when there is a thrombus - a blood clot blocking a blood vessel and can cause heart attack, stroke or pulmonary embolism. In pregnant women is considered to lead to miscarriage and / or preeclampsia - a condition characterized by very elevated blood pressure and presence of protein in the urine. This condition can lead to eclampsia.
     
    Experts advise before buying vitamin supplements to consult a doctor and make a quick blood test. Vitamin supplements should be taken according to the individual needs of everyone, because the difference between benefit and harm is only in dosage.

    rice diarrhea gentaur antibodiesGenetically modified rice could help protect children and the immuno-compromised from diarrheal disease, according to a study published last week (August 8) in The Journal of Clinical Investigation. More than 600,000 children die of rotavirus infections each year, and researchers say the rice could eventually supplement currently available vaccines and other treatments to reduce the rates of rotavirus-related death.

    To produce their virus-fighting rice, the researchers inserted genes from llamas in order to get the plants to produce a key section of a rotavirus-targeting antibody, MucoRice-ARP1. This antibody fragment survives digestion, making oral administration possible.

    The researchers tested the product in mice, giving them water mixed with rice powder before inoculating the animals with rotavirus. The mice that had received the genetically modified rice water had less diarrhea and a lower viral load than those not given the treatment.

    There are already two vaccines available for rotavirus, but they have relatively low efficacy, possibly because they do not work well in immuno-compromised individuals. The researchers suggest that their GM rice could supplement the vaccines, providing protection for the immuno-compromised and infants who are at particularly high risk of diarrheal disease.

    But Mathuram Santosham, who studies rotaviruses at Johns Hopkins University, told that “substantially more research is needed to understand the potential impact of this intervention in humans.” She added that, “in the meantime, it is important to remember that we have highly effective tools, which are available now, including rotavirus vaccines, oral rehydration solution, and zinc supplementation.”