Contact Us

GENTAUR Europe

 GENTAUR Europe BVBA
Voortstraat 49, 1910 Kampenhout BELGIUM
Tel 0032 16 58 90 45 
Fax 0032 16 50 90 45
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Gentaur Bulgaria

 GENTAUR BULGARIA
53 Iskar Str. 1191 Kokalyane, Sofia
Tel 0035924682280 
Fax 0035929830072
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    GENTAUR France

     GENTAUR France SARL
    9, rue Lagrange, 75005 Paris 
    Tel 01 43 25 01 50 
    Fax 01 43 25 01 60
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Gentaur Germany

    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.3em;">

      GmbH Marienbongard 20
    52062 Aachen Deutschland
    Tel (+49) 0241 56 00 99 68 
    Fax (+49) 0241 56 00 47 88 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="font-family: Arial, Tahoma, Verdana, Helvetica; line-height: 15.59375px; ">
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.3em;">

    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Gentaur London

     GENTAUR Ltd. 
    Howard Frank Turnberry House 
    1404-1410 High Road 
    Whetstone London N20 9BH 
    Tel 020 3393 8531 
    Fax 020 8445 9411
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    GENTAUR Poland

     GENTAUR Poland Sp. z o.o. 

    ul. Grunwaldzka 88/A m.2

    81-771 Sopot, Poland
    Tel  058 710 33 44
    Fax 058 710 33 48 
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    GENTAUR Nederland

     GENTAUR Nederland BV
    Kuiper 1 
    5521 DG Eersel Nederland
    Tel 0208-080893 
    Fax 0497-517897
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Gentaur Italy

     GENTAUR SRL IVA IT03841300167

    Piazza Giacomo Matteotti, 6, 24122 Bergamo
    Tel 02 36 00 65 93 
    Fax 02 36 00 65 94
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    GENTAUR Spain

     GENTAUR Spain
    Tel 0911876558
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." style="">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Genprice USA

    usa-flagGenprice Inc, Logistics
    547, Yurok Circle
    San Jose, CA 95123
    Phone/Fax: 

    (408) 780-0908 

    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    skype chat

    GENPRICE Inc. invoicing/ accounting:
    6017 Snell Ave, Suite 357
    San Jose, CA. 96123

     

    Gentaur Serbia

    serbiaSerbia, Macedonia FlagMacedonia, 

    montenegro-flagMontenegro, croatiaCroatia: 
    Tel 0035929830070 
    Fax 0035929830072
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    GENTAUR Romania

    romGENTAUR Romania

    Tel 0035929830070 
    Fax 0035929830072
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    GENTAUR Greece

    grGENTAUR Greece 

    Tel 00302111768494 
    Fax 0032 16 50 90 45

    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Other countries

    Other countries
    Luxembourg +35220880274
    Schweiz Züri +41435006251
    Danmark +4569918806
    Österreich +43720880899
    Ceská republika Praha +420246019719
    Ireland Dublin +35316526556
    Norge Oslo +4721031366
    Finland Helsset +358942419041
    Sverige Stockholm +46852503438
    Magyarország Budapest +3619980547

    seal-in-search-symantec

     

     

    Thursday, 12 September 2013 11:26

    The Secret Lives (and Deaths) of Neurons

    Rate this item
    (1 Vote)

    As the human body fine-tunes its neurological wiring, nerve cells often must fix a faulty connection by amputating an axon -- the "business end" of the neuron that sends electrical impulses to tissues or other neurons. It is a dance with death, however, because the molecular poison the neuron deploys to sever an axon could, if uncontained, kill the entire cell.

    Researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have uncovered some surprising insights about the process of axon amputation, or "pruning," in a study published May 21 in the journal Nature Communications. Axon pruning has mystified scientists curious to know how a neuron can unleash a self -destruct mechanism within its axon, but keep it from spreading to the rest of the cell. The researchers' findings could offer clues about the processes underlying some neurological disorders.

    "Aberrant axon pruning is thought to underlie some of the causes for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism," said Mohanish Deshmukh, PhD, professor of cell biology and physiology at UNC and the study's senior author. "This study sheds light on some of the mechanisms by which neurons are able to regulate axon pruning."

    Axon pruning is part of normal development and plays a key role in learning and memory. Another important process, apoptosis -- the purposeful death of an entire cell -- is also crucial because it allows the body to cull broken or incorrectly placed neurons. But both processes have been linked with disease when improperly regulated.

    The research team placed mouse neurons in special devices called microfluidic chambers that allowed the researchers to independently manipulate the environments surrounding the axon and cell body to induce axon pruning or apoptosis.

    They found that although the nerve cell uses the same poison -- a group of molecules known as Caspases -- whether it intends to kill the whole cell or just the axon, it deploys the Caspases in a different way depending on the context.

    "People had assumed that the mechanism was the same regardless of whether the context was axon pruning or apoptosis, but we found that it's actually quite distinct," said Deshmukh. "The neuron essentially uses the same components for both cases, but tweaks them in a very elegant way so the neuron knows whether it needs to undergo apoptosis or axon pruning."

    In apoptosis, the neuron deploys the deadly Caspases using an activator known as Apaf-1. In the case of axon pruning, Apaf-1 was simply not involved, despite the presence of Caspases. "This is really going to take the field by surprise," said Deshmukh. "There's very little precedent of Caspases being activated without Apaf-1. We just didn't know they could be activated through a different mechanism."

    In addition, the team discovered that neurons employ other molecules as safety brakes to keep the "kill" signal contained to the axon alone. "Having this brake keeps that signal from spreading to the rest of the body," said Deshmukh. "Remarkably, just removing one brake makes the neurons more vulnerable."

    Deshmukh said the findings offer a glimpse into how nerve cells reconfigure themselves during development and beyond. Enhancing our understanding of these basic processes could help illuminate what has gone wrong in the case of some neurological disorders.

    Read 3697 times