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    pandoravirus-cells-antibodies-gentaurWith the discovery of Mimivirus ten years ago and, more recently, Megavirus chilensis, researchers thought they had reached the farthest corners of the viral world in terms of size and genetic complexity. With a diameter in the region of a micrometer and a genome incorporating more than 1,100 genes, these giant viruses, which infect amoebas of the Acanthamoeba genus, had already largely encroached on areas previously thought to be the exclusive domain of bacteria. For the sake of comparison, common viruses such as the influenza or AIDS viruses only contain around ten genes each.

    In the article published in Science, the researchers announced they had discovered two new giant viruses:

    • - Pandoravirus salinus, on the coast of Chile;
    • - Pandoravirus dulcis, in a freshwater pond in Melbourne, Australia.

     

    Detailed analysis has shown that these first two Pandoraviruses have virtually nothing in common with previously characterized giant viruses. What's more, only a very small percentage (6%) of proteins encoded byPandoravirus salinus are similar to those already identified in other viruses or cellular organisms. With a genome of this size,Pandoravirus salinus has just demonstrated that viruses can be more complex than some eukaryotic cells. Another unusual feature of Pandoraviruses is that they have no gene allowing them to build a protein like the capsid protein, which is the basic building block of traditional viruses.

    Despite all these novel properties, Pandoraviruses display the essential characteristics of other viruses in that they contain no ribosome, produce no energy and do not divide.

    This groundbreaking research included an analysis of thePandoravirus salinus proteome, which proved that the proteins making it up are consistent with those predicted by the virus' genome sequence. Pandoraviruses thus use the universal genetic code shared by all living organisms on the planet.

    This shows just how much more there is to learn regarding microscopic biodiversity as soon as new environments are considered. The simultaneous discovery of two specimens of this new virus family in sediments located 15,000 km apart indicates that Pandoraviruses, which were completely unknown until now, are very likely not rare.

    It definitively bridges the gap between viruses and cells -- a gap that was proclaimed as dogma at the very outset of modern virology back in the 1950s.

    It also suggests that cell life could have emerged with a far greater variety of pre-cellular forms than those conventionally considered, as the new giant virus has almost no equivalent among the three recognized domains of cellular life, namely eukaryota (or eukaryotes), eubacteria, and archaea.

    Published in News

    naked mole ratNaked mole rats have what any animal would want. They live long lives—about 30 years—and stay healthy until the very end. Now biologists at the University of Rochester have new insights into the animal's longevity—better-constructed proteins.

    Proteins are involved in nearly all functions of an animal cell, and consequently, are essential to all organisms. But before proteins can do their job, they must fold into the appropriate shapes that allow them to connect to and interact with other structures in the cell. In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vera Gorbunova and Andrei Seluanov describe their discovery of the process in naked mole rats that leads to virtually perfect proteins.

    "While this is basic research," said Gorbunova, "we hope our findings encourage further studies on better protein synthesis."

    Their work focused on naked mole rat ribosomes—the site of protein creation in the animal's cells—and began by happenstance. Gorbunova and Seluanov were working with ribosome RNA (rRNA) when they made a discovery. After applying a dye to a sample, they studied it under ultraviolet light only to find three dark bands—representing concentrations of different rRNA molecules—not the two bands that are characteristic of all other animals, suggesting that there is a "hidden break" in the naked mole rat rRNA. Since rRNA is an essential part of the protein-creation mechanism, the two biologists decided to see if the broken rRNA affects the quality of naked mole rat proteins.

    Ribosome RNA strands act as scaffolds on the ribosome, a protein synthesis machine. Changing the shape of the scaffold can have a profound effect on the organization of the ribosome parts.

    Gorbunova and Seluanov discovered that the naked mole rat's rRNA scaffold is indeed unique. The rRNA strands split at two specific locations and discard the intervening segment. Instead of floating off on their own, the two remaining pieces from each strand stay close to each other and act as a scaffold on which ribosomal proteins are assembled to create a functional ribosome—a molecular machine that puts amino acids together to create proteins. And the results are impressive.

    When the ribosome connects amino acids together to create a protein a mistake is occasionally introduced when an incorrect amino acid is inserted. Gorbunova and Seluanov found that the proteins made by naked mole rat cells are up to 40 times less likely to contain such mistakes than the proteins made by mouse cells.

    "This is important because proteins with no aberrations help the body to function more efficiently," said Seluanov.

    The next step for the biologists is to split mouse rRNA in the same way to see if it would lead to improved protein creation.

    The two biologists hope their work will eventually result in pharmaceutical treatments that modulate protein synthesis in humans, though any medical solution is a long way off.

    Published in News

    OrTube centrifuge tubesOrTube centrifuge tubes2

    OrPlate culture plates

    - Made of USP VI class virgin Polystyrene, high clarity and toughness, high light transferability with minimal light distortion
    - Guaranteed even surface refinement in the growth zone
    - Alpha-numeric identification method to identify each well
    - Specially designed lid separates each well, thus preventing liquid or condensate cross-contamination
    - Deep spacing between the wells to prevent cross-contamination
    - Cut corner makes the lid a “one-way“ lid
    - Special design allows easy and stable stacking
    - Optimum optical clarity for microscope observation
    - Packaged in easy to peel paper back and plastic packs
    - Test Plates are certified as having been sterilised by gamma radiation
    - Test plates are certified as being DNA and RNA free
    - Test plates are certified as having an endotoxin level of <0.5 EU/ml

     PDF-IconDownload pdf to see prices

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    Published in Top Products
    Thursday, 13 June 2013 17:00

    EnzyChrom Adipolysis Assay Kit

    EnzyChrom Adipolysis Assay Kit

    Quick Overview:
    Quantitative assay of adipolysis by measuring glycerol released in cell culture using colorimetric (570nm) or fluorimetric (530nm/590nm) methods. Procedure: 20 min. Detection limit: 0.92 g/mL. Shelf life: 3 months. Shipping: on ice; storage: 4, -20C.

    Description:

    Obesity is a chronic condition that develops from storage of excessive energy in the form of adipose tissue. The resulting adiposity presents a high risk factor for diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. ADIPOLYSIS or lipolysis is a  ighly regulated process in fat metabolism, in which triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and free fatty acids. Rapid, robust and accurate procedures for adipolysis quantification in cell culture are very useful in research and drug discovery. BioAssay Systems'  dipolysis assay kit directly measures glycerol released during adipolysis. This homogeneous assay uses a single Working Reagent that combines glycerol kinase, glycerol phosphate oxidase and color reactions in one step. The color intensity of the reaction product  t 570nm is directly proportional to glycerol concentration in the sample.

    Applications:

    - Direct Assays: adipolysis (glycerol in cell culture media).
    - Drug Discovery/Pharmacology: effects of testing drugs on adipolysis.

    Cat. No.: EAPL-200

    Quantity / Size: 200 Tests

    Kit Contents:

    Assay Buffer: 24 mL Enzyme Mix: 500 μL ATP: 250 μL Dye Reagent: 220 μL Standard: 100 μL 100 mM Glycerol Storage conditions. The kit is shipped on ice. Store Assay Buffer at 4°C and other reagents at -20°C. Shelf life of 12 months after receipt. Precautions:  eagents are for research use only. Normal precautions for laboratory reagents should be exercised while using the reagents. Please refer to Material Safety Data Sheet for detailed information.

    Benefits:

    - Assay kit that are simple, convenient and cost effective

    - Superior in performance

    - Researchers need little-to-notime for assay optimization

    - Specialize for both routine laboratory tests and for high-throughput drug discovery applications

    - with a focus on safe, non-radioactive assay

    Key Features: Key features of our assays include simplicity, high-throughput, sensitivity, accuracy and low interference.

    Storage Temp: -20°C

    Shipping Conditions: Dry Ice

    PDF-IconDownload Datasheet

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    Published in Top Products
    Wednesday, 12 June 2013 17:47

    HIV-infected H9 T cell

    hiv-infected-h9-gentaur n

    Image of an HIV-infected H9 T cell, colorized in blue, turqoise, and yellow set against a dark background.

    Published in News
    Saturday, 18 May 2013 17:20

    InfectoSTOP 25ml

    Initiating a primary cell culture from a surgical tissue is often difficult because of contamination. It is therefore important to incubate the tissue in an appropriate solution containing an optimized mixture of antibiotics, each at a given concentration able to avoid infectious contamination without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, it is not always possible to initiate primary cell culture immediately after surgical excision so the tissue needs to be stored for several hours until further processed.

    Product Description

    InfectoSTOP (GENT 19 - INSTOP) is a ready-to-use solution containing an optimized mix of antibiotics against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasma and fungi for cell culture applications.

    Simply dilute the necessary volume (enough to cover the tissue) of InfectoSTOP in PBS or in cell culture medium.

    Intended Use

    InfectoSTOP is intended for use in primary cell culture initiation or to extend cell viability in fresh surgical material of any tissue type.

    InfectoSTOP can also be used for decontaminating established cell cultures.

    The product should be handled under sterile conditions and is not intended for animal or human use.

    Caution: If handled improperly, some components of this product may present a health hazard. Take appropriate precautions when handling this product, including the wearing of protective clothing and eyewear. Dispose of properly

    How to use InfectoSTOP

    To initiate primary cultures from fresh surgical material

    Dilute InfectoSTOP 10x in PBS (4 °C) and put the tissue in the freshly made solution. Rinse tissue immediately twice or more and then incubate 2 hours at 4 °C. Prepare a fresh solution, rinse once and incubate overnight (or at least one week without viability loss, depending on the type of tissue) at 4 °C.

    Just before initiating primary cell culture, rinse one more with InfectoSTOP.

    To eliminate contamination in anchorage-dependant cells
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 5x diluted fresh made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate at 37 °C for 1 hour
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 10x diluted freshly made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate at 37 °C for 3 hours
    • - Entirely rinse the flask twice with a 10x diluted freshly made InfectoSTOP solution (w/o serum)
    • - Incubate overnight in cell culture with a 10x diluted freshly made dilution of InfectoSTOP in complete culture medium

    The above cell treatment can be repeated twice if necessary.

    The dilution and incubation time of InfectoSTOP must be adjust to your own cell culture

    To eliminate contamination in anchorage-independent cells

    Same procedure as above, but before rinsing and incubation, pellet the cells by brief centrifugation.

    Storage and Stability
    •  InfectoSTOP is stored under -20° C at our facility and is shipped on dry ice.
    •  If the product is to be used immediately, thaw in a 37° C water bath or overnight at 4° C.
    •  If thawed in a water bath, do not leave the product at 37° C for more than 1 hour.
    •  When stored at 4° C, InfectoSTOP is stable for at least 2 weeks.
    •  If the product is not to be used within 1 week after receipt, we recommend storing it at below -20° C in a freezer that is not self-defrosting.
    •  Do not thaw and refreeze more than once. When stored at below -20°C, the product is stable until the expiration date shown on the label.

    Handling:

    GLP techniques should be employed for the safe handling of this product.

    This includes observing the following practices:

    • - Wear appropriate laboratory cloches including a lab coat, gloves and safety glasses.
    • - Do not mouth pipette, inhale, ingest or allow to come into contact with open wounds. Wash thoroughly any area of the body, which comes into contact with the product.
    • - Avoid accidental autoinoculation by exercising extreme care when handling in conjunction with any injection device.
    • - Handle the product under sterile area.
    • - This product is intended for research purposes and should be handled by qualified personnel only. It is not intended for use in humans or in animals. Gentaur is not liable for any damages resulting from the misuse or handling of this product.
    Components

    One bottle of 25 ml.

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    Published in Promos
    Friday, 19 April 2013 10:28

    The Human Papillomavirus

    The 3D model of HPVPapillomaviruses are a very diverse group of viruses that infect human skin and mucosal cells, which serve as a barrier between the environment and a human being. Most representatives of this group do not cause any symptoms, but highly pathogenic types may cause cancer. Ancient literature contains the first known mention of skin warts. The first classification of warts was introduced by Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus in 25 AD, and the assumption that warts may be transmitted via infection originated even earlier. However, the viral nature of papillomas was not demonstrated until the beginning of the twentieth century (reviewed in 4). The first papillomavirus was isolated in 1933 by the American virologist Richard Shope, who also isolated an influenza virus.

    The evolutionary history of papillomaviruses seems to coincide with the origin of higher-order vertebrates, amniotes (including reptiles, birds, and mammals). Mammalian skin structure appears to make them the most suitable hosts for the papillomaviruses, and — today — papillomaviruses are widespread in mammals and rarely found in birds. The relationship between papillomaviruses and similar groups of DNA-viruses, such as polyomaviruses, is not well-demonstrated at the present time. There are more than a hundred types of papillomaviruseshigh-risk that can infect humans. These are collectively referred to as human papilloma viruses or HPV and are divided into (HR) and low-risk (LR) types by their carcinogenic properties. HPV are transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact, and approximately 30 types are transmitted sexually. LR HPV are much more common than HR HPV among humans and often do not cause any symptoms. In fact, only 18 types of HPV pose a cancer risk, mostly for anogenital cancers.

    Current research suggests that LR HPVs produce more virions and infect more human hosts whereas HR types are less virulent but more difficult for the immune system to neutralize. The most dangerous HR HPV types are also the most widespread, HPV16 (reference strain) and HPV18, and the main cause of skin warts (especially in the anogenital zone) are HPV types 6 and 11. These and several other types of HPV attract serious attention.

    Human papilloma virus particles lack a lipid envelope and are relatively small, with a diameter of only about 30 nm. In comparison, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza virus virions are enveloped by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell and are approximately four times larger. The papillomavirus genome consists of double-stranded DNA decorated and packed by histones of the host cell. It encodes two types of proteins, early (E) proteins and late (L) proteins: early HPV proteins maintain regulatory functions (and are responsible for oncotransformation of the host cell in the case of HR types), and late proteins form the capsid of the virion. The life cycle of HPV is bound to the life cycle of its host cells, keratinocytes, and HPV can only be cultivated in special organotypic raft cultures containing a population of cells at different developmental stages — similar to the skin of a living organism. Keratinocytes are the main cells of epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. Actively dividing young keratinocytes are found near the basal membrane that separates the epidermis from other layers of the skin and move towards the skin surface during maturation. Viral particles infect non-differentiated cells, and new virions are produced inside the keratinocytes during the terminal stage of differentiation.

    The HPV early proteins are responsible for maintaining a proper amount of viral DNA inside the host cell nucleus. However, they also coordinate the expression of viral genes. Proteins E1 and E2 form a complex with viral DNA, which recruits the cell replication systems. Proteins E6 and E7 are responsible for the carcinogenic effect in HR HPV types. E6 is able to bind to the tumor suppressor p53 and promote its ubiquitination and degradation. Protein E7 binds several cell proteins and tumor suppressors, including theretinoblastoma protein. The activity of the E6 and E7 proteins leads to uncontrolled cell division.

    Late proteins of HPV form the viral capsid and mediate packaging of DNA into the virion. The pentamer-forming L1 protein is the major component of the HPV capsid, and the L2 protein is a minor constituent. The HPV capsid looks roughly spherical, but, in fact, it has a icosahedral symmetry with the triangulation number that equals 7. Rather than a structure based on pentamers mixed with hexamers (like that of the soccer ball), the HPV capsid is composed of 72 L1 pentamers of two different types — 60 hexavalent pentamers and 12 pentavalent pentamers (reviewed in 2, chapter 3). Remarkably, the fold of HPV L1 proteins is similar to that of human nucleoplasmins, the proteins that regulate the assembly of nucleosomes. Whether they share a common ancestor or whether their similarity is the result of convergent evolution is not yet clear. Perhaps the interaction between L1 and nucleosomes on viral DNA is crucial for the encapsidation of the HPV genetic material.

    One monomer of L2 is associated with each L1 pentamer of the HPV virion, and current research suggests that L2 is crucial for DNA recruitment to the viral particle. Some hypothesize that L2 — as well as L1 — may interact not with viral DNA but rather with its histones. To date, however, much of the process through which HPV DNA is packed inside the virion remains unknown. One facet of the process that is known may make HPV an important tool in human gene therapy: any segment of DNA less than 8 kb long may be packed inside the capsid [link], which enables the development and use of HPV-based transformation vectors. Interestingly, human cyclophilin participates in HPV capsid unpacking, a mechanism that has also been demonstrated for HIV.

    A growing interest in HPV research can be partially — if not wholly — attributed to discovery of the relationship between HPV and cancer and the subsequent Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2008) awarded for this work. German scientist Harald zur Hausen has shown that nearly all cases of cervical cancer are the result of HPV infection. Vaccines against HPV are currently being actively developed and introduced, and the main targets for such vaccines include the most dangerous and common HPV types: HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18.

    Dr. Christopher Buck from the U.S. National Cancer Institute: Current vaccines against human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a triumph of applied structural virology. However, the current vaccines, which use recombinant virus-like particles composed of the L1 major capsid protein, do not protect against all disease-causing HPV types. Fortunately, a new generation of HPV vaccines targeting conserved „Achilles’ heel“ epitopes present in the L2 minor capsid protein promise to offer broad protection against all HPVs, including all types that cause cancer, as well as types that cause benign skin warts (for which the papillomavirus family is named). Current knowledge about the structure, dynamics, and function of L2 during the infectious entry process is very limited. This structural information is desperately needed to inform the development of pan-protective HPV vaccines.

    Published in News

    gene-therapy-gentaur-antibodiesWITHIN just eight days of starting a novel gene therapy, David Aponte's "incurable" leukaemia had vanished. For four other patients, the same happened within eight weeks, although one later died from a blood clot unrelated to the treatment, and another after relapsing. The cured trio, who were all previously diagnosed with usually fatal relapses of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, have now been in remission for between 5 months and 2 years. Michel Sadelain of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, co-leader of the group that designed the trial, says that a second trial of 50 patients is being readied, and the team is looking into using the technique to treat other cancers.

    The key to the new therapy is identifying a molecule unique to the surface of cancer cells, then genetically engineering a patient's immune cells to attack it. In acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, immune cells called B-cells become malignant. The team were able to target a surface molecule known as CD19 that is only present on B-cells. Doctors extracted other immune cells called T-cells from the patients. These were treated with a harmless virus, which installed a new gene redirecting them to attack all cells bearing CD19. When the engineered T-cells were reinfused into the patients, they rapidly killed all B-cells, cancerous or otherwise.

    "The stunning finding was that in all five patients, tumours were undetectable after the treatment," says Sadelain. He reckons that the body should replenish the immune system with regular T-cells and healthy B-cells after a couple of months. However, the patients received donated bone marrow to ensure they could regrow a healthy immune system.

    The treatment is not the first to re-engineer T-cells to attack a form of leukaemia. Last year, an international company called Adaptimmune used the approach to treat 13 people with multiple myeloma – it left 10 in remission. "Although it's early days for these trials, the approach of modifying a patient's T-cells to attack their cancer is looking increasingly like one that will, in time, have a place alongside more traditional treatments," says Paul Moss of Cancer Research UK. Sadelain's team is now investigating the scope for attacking other cancers. Where no single surface molecule is unique to a cancer, he is seeking to target pairs of molecules that only occur together on cancer cells. In January, he demonstrated this approach by wiping out human prostate tumours implanted in mice, using T-cells engineered to target two surface molecules.

     

    Published in News

    While providing a thorough overview of the observed objects, optical microscopes are limited by so-called. diffraction barrier, why microscope can not distinguish two separate objects if they are at a distance of less than about 200 nm. This microscope is not simple, says Gizmodo.

    Combining powerful optics and advanced algorithms to recreate the image, DeltaVision OMX Blaze General Electric Company allows us to peer into the microscopic world and remain amazed by it.

    Established in 2011, DeltaVision OMX Blaze worth 1.2 million dollars. "Some of us jokingly started calling him OMG, after seeing images that can produce it," says Jane Stout of the Medical Faculty of the University of Indiana in Bloomington.

    In footage shown here winning Elestric General Healthcare Life Sciences 2012 Imaging Competition.

    hek293 cells expressing fluorescent gpcr  green  and   -arrestin  red  fusion proteins with dna staining  blue . therapeutic focus drug discovery gentaur

    gentaur-antibodies-cell-culture-microscope-4

    gentaur-antibodies-cell-culture-microscope-3

    gentaur-antibodies-cell-culture-microscope-2

    Published in News
    Thursday, 28 March 2013 16:39

    XerumFree™ XF205 Medium Supplement

    Adapting Cells To a Serum-Free Environment

    Fully defined, animal-component free and GMP produced cell culture supplement.

    Performing cell culture without serum can be challenging. However, the rewards do largely recompense the efforts, and re-discove- ring the basics of cell culture develops quickly into a passion. The intention of this paper is to guide the user to a smooth transition to serum-free conditions and to avoid all inadequate or inappropriate efforts.

    Ideally, the transition to serum-free conditions should be carried out over several passages to gradually select cells that can grow under serum-free conditions. However, direct adaptation to serum-free environments may also work out successfully, provided that all crucial aspects are addressed properly.

    Regardless of the method used, key concerns include the growth state of the cellular inoculum, cell seeding density, sub-cultivation techniques, and biophysical attributes of the cell culture system.

    Our XerumFree™ serum replacement has been designed so as to be used in the same way as conventional cell culture sera, as a medium supplement. The concentration however is 5x higher, so typically you will use 2% to a basal medium. You will go through the same steps as usual.

    Be the first to order this brand new product!

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    PDF-IconDownload datasheet with instructions for use

    Published in Promos
    Page 1 of 3