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    Displaying items by tag: bacteria
    Tuesday, 29 July 2014 16:58

    Discovery of a new intestinal virus

    gentaur-new-virusScientists have discovered a previously unknown virus that lives in the human gut, according to a study published in Nature Communications.
     
    An international team of scientists discovered the virus in CrAssphage genetic material from samples of intestine. Scientists believe the virus can affect the behavior of some of the most common bacteria in the intestinal flora.
     
    Experts explain that these types of viruses called bacteriophages play an important role in chronic diseases. Leading a team from the State University at San Diego, USA, "clears" the genetic information that is stored in three large international databases.
     
    They fall on the portion of the DNA to be detected in more than half of all the samples. Further analysis found that the virus has not been detected so far.
     
    Scientists explain that it has a genetic fingerprint of the bacteriophage - type virus, which is known to infect the bacteria. He can control the behavior of bacteria that affect - in some cases makes it easier to live in the environment in which they are located, and may make the bacteria more powerful.
     
    Scientists are trying to grow the virus in the laboratory. Explain that the next step will be to establish exactly the way in which the virus affects intestinal bacteria.

    Published in News

    Infectious diseases caused by microbes . These are small organisms that are invisible to the naked eye , and " burst " in the body , in order to reproduce . The symptoms caused by the infection will depend on the location , the nature of the infection and the type of microbe .
     
    Gentaur virus VS bacteriaThe two main types of microbes are bacteria and viruses. Viruses are the smallest size of all germs. They can " attack " almost every living organism . Viruses used for the host of other organisms , such as man. This means that the virus invades a cell in the body and parts thereof used in order to reproduce .
     
    Thus produced hundreds of new viruses which can spread throughout the body. They can also infect new organisms. Viruses can not survive outside the host organism for long. Can live for several seconds to a few minutes after you leave .
     
    Bacteria are much larger size of viruses. They live almost everywhere , and many of them do not cause infections. Bacteria reproduce by division. If conditions are favorable - temperature, nutrient availability - some species can reproduce every 20 minutes.
     
    Intestines contain a large number of bacteria. Usually they do not cause problems. In many cases even useful - for example, there are bacteria that aid digestion. However , if the immune system is weak , may occur problems such as diarrhea , constipation or cramping.
     
    Viruses and bacteria can cause infection. Local infection leads to redness and swelling . The fabric may also become warm and painful. Typical symptoms of a viral or bacterial infection include fever , fatigue and weakness . Overall, the viral infection is simple and complaints subside on its own.
     
    It is difficult to destroy viruses. Specific medications have been developed that are aimed at specific types .
     
    Bacterial infections also usually resolves on its own. If this is not the case, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics.
     
    It is important to prevent the spread of germs. For this purpose good hygiene plays an important role .

     

    Published in News
    Wednesday, 17 July 2013 16:38

    Self-cleaning screens even killed E. coli

    dirty-smartphone-products-taq-pcr-elisa-targatt-accupower-elisa-kits

    A survey by the magazine Which? Conducted in 2010, the surface of a cell phone contains 18 times more harmful bacteria than a button in a public toilet cistern. For this reason, the company Corning introduces coating displays antimicrobial properties which kills virtually emptied microorganisms on it.

    CEO Jeff Evarsan says that innovative coverage will be effective against drug resistant bacteria and viruses. Originally designed for use in biomedical institutions, creators see huge potential and applied to the standard personal phones.

    Evarsan demonstrate some of the properties of the coating in public places such as fluorescently labeled bacteria Escherichia coli usually of glass and a specially crafted their antibacterial glass. While on common glass bacteria live undisturbed and full potential to infect someone on these patented by Corning coverage are completely destroyed in less than two hours.

    Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that is a major cause of food poisoning and severe forms of gastrointestinal disorders. Study of the American Health Organization in 2012 concluded that one in six mobile phones is seriously contaminated with a large number of pathogens, mainly E. coli.
     
    The company informed that the first phones with their innovative hygienic coverage will reach the market by 2015

    Published in News
    Monday, 29 April 2013 10:11

    Candida albicans Z006, DNA (1 μg)

    PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: Each aliquot contains 1 μg of DNA extracted from a pure culture of Candida albicans. The identification of this organism was confirmed by rDNA sequencing. The purity of the culture was monitored by additional culturing and Gram staining to detect any contaminating bacteria. The DNA was extracted from the cells following a protocol based on the yeast protocol provided in the Qiagen® Genomic DNA Handbook and using Qiagen® Genomic DNA Buffers with a 500/G genomic tip. DNA concentration and OD260/280 ratios are determined using a NanoDrop ND- 1000®. The extracted DNA also tested positive on an in-house real time PCR assay.

    INTENDED USE: Purified Genomic DNA is designed for use as an amplification and/or detection control for nucleic acid testing of Candida albicans. It can also be used to determine a limit of detection (LOD), in diagnostic assay development, cross-reactivity studies or genomic sequencing. When used as a control for nucleic acid tests, the same protocols as those used to amplify extracted clinical specimens should be employed.

    PRECAUTIONS:
    - Use Universal Precautions when handling Genomic DNA.
    - The material may be re-frozen after thawing. Repetitive freezing and thawing is not recommended (aliquot material if necessary).
    - To avoid cross-contamination, use separate pipette tips for all reagents.

    RECOMMENDED STORAGE:
    This control is supplied in TE Buffer and should be frozen at -20°C or below.

    DO NOT USE IN HUMANS:
    These products are intended for research, product development, quality assurance or manufacturing use. These products are NOT intended for use in the manufacture or processing of injectable products subject to licensure under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act or for any other product intended for administration to humans.

    Catalog #: 0801504DNA-1μg

    Contact us for additional information

     

    Published in Promos

    gentaur-anti-lyme-disease-cell-cultureSaito collaborated with biomedical researchers at Johns Hopkins University, applying his proteomic techniques to explore proteins in a terrestrial organism, the bacteria that cause Lyme Disease. Unlike all other known organisms, Borrelia burgdorferi need manganese (blue dot), rather than iron, to serve as linchpins bonded into key enzymes. The scientists found that to cause disease, Borrelia require unusually high levels of manganese. The findings open new avenues to search for ways to attack the bacteria. Credit: P. John Hart, University of Texas. Scientists have confirmed that the pathogen that causes Lyme Disease—unlike any other known organism—can exist without iron, a metal that all other life needs to make proteins and enzymes. Instead of iron, the bacteria substitute manganese to make an essential enzyme, thus eluding immune system defenses that protect the body by starving pathogens of iron.

    To cause disease, Borrelia burgdorferi requires unusually high levels of manganese, scientists at Johns Hopkins University (JHU), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the University of Texas reported. Their study, published March 22, 2013, in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, may explain some mysteries about why Lyme Disease is slow-growing and hard to detect and treat. The findings also open the door to search for new therapies to thwart the bacterium by targeting manganese. "When we become infected with pathogens, from tuberculosis to yeast infections, the body has natural immunological responses," said Valeria Culotta, a molecular biologist at the JHU Bloomberg School of Public Health. The liver produces hepcidin, a hormone that inhibits iron from being absorbed in the gut and also prevents it from getting into the bloodstream. "We become anemic, which is one reason we feel terrible, but it effectively starves pathogens of iron they need to grow and survive," she said. Borrelia, with no need for iron,has evolved to evade that defense mechanism. In 2000, groundbreaking research on Borrelia's genome by James Posey and Frank Gherardini at the University of Georgia showed that the bacterium has no genes that code to make iron-containing proteins and typically do not accumulate any detectable iron. Culotta's lab at JHU investigates what she called "metal-trafficking" in organisms­—the biochemical mechanisms that cells and pathogens such as Borrelia use to acquire and manipulate metal ions for their biological purposes. "If Borrelia doesn't use iron, what does it use?" Culotta asked. To find out, Culotta's lab joined forces with Mak Saito, a marine chemist at WHOI, who had developed techniques to explore how marine life uses metals. Saito was particularly intrigued because of the high incidence of Lyme Disease on Cape Cod, where WHOI is located, and because he specializes in metalloproteins, which contain iron, zinc, cobalt, and other elements often seen in vitamin supplements. The metals serve as linchpins, binding to enzymes. They help determine the enzymes' distinctive three-dimensional shapes and the specific chemical reactions they catalyze.

    It's difficult to identify what metals are within proteins because typical analyses break apart proteins, often separating metal from protein. Saito used a liquid chromatography mass spectrometer to distinguish and measure separate individual Borrelia proteins according to their chemical properties and infinitesimal differences in their masses. Then he used an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to detect and measure metals down to parts per trillion. Together, the combined analyses not only measured the amounts of metals and proteins, they showed that the metals are components of the proteins. "The tools he has are fantastic," Culotta said. "Not too many people have this set of tools to detect metalloproteins." The experiments revealed that instead of iron, Borrelia uses that element's next-door neighbor on the periodic chart, manganese, in certain Borrelia enzymes. These include an amino peptidase and an important antioxidant enzyme called superoxide dismutase. Superoxide dismutase protects the pathogens against a second defense mechanism that the body throws against them. The body bombards pathogens with superoxide radicals, highly reactive molecules that cause damage within the pathogens. Superoxide dismutase is like an antioxidant that neutralizes the superoxides so that the pathogens can continue to grow. The discoveries open new possibilities for therapies, Culotta said. "The only therapy for Lyme Disease right now are antibiotics like penicillin, which are effective if the disease is detected early enough. It works by attacking the bacteria's cell walls. But certain forms of Borrelia, such as the L-form, can be resistant because they are deficient in cell walls." "So we'd like to find targets inside pathogenic cell that could thwart their growth," she continued. "The best targets are enzymes that the pathogens have, but people do not, so they would kill the pathogens but not harm people." Borrelia's distinctive manganese-containing enzymes such as superoxide dismutase may have such attributes. In search of new avenues of attack, the groups are planning to expand their collaborative efforts by mapping out all the metal-binding proteins that Borellia uses and investigating biochemical mechanisms that the bacteria use to acquire manganese and directs it into essential enzymes. Knowing details of how that happens offers ways to disrupt the process and deter Lyme Disease.

    Published in News