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GENTAUR Europe

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Gentaur Bulgaria

 GENTAUR BULGARIA
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    Gentaur Germany

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    52062 Aachen Deutschland
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     GENTAUR Ltd. 
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     GENTAUR Poland Sp. z o.o. 

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     GENTAUR SRL IVA IT03841300167

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    gentaur-antibiotic-resistanceFungal molecule allows to realize the effect of the antibiotic to achieve the cure. It can be the key to suppression of resistance to antibiotics, according to scientists from the University of McMaster, Canada.
     
    The emergence of antibiotic resistance, role playing gene  known as NDM-1. The World Health Organization recognizes it as a global threat to human health due to its resistance to some of the most powerful class of antibiotics known as carbapenems.
     
    Despite his frightening presence in many bacterial strains, NDM-1 is found in the most common bacteria among people - Escherichia coli - bacteria that causes most infections of the bladder and kidneys. Without antibiotics to "fight" with NDM-1, doctors are helpless.
     
    The carbapenem class of drugs are very similar to penicillin, which means that they are used in a variety of unique situations. Researchers worse is that NDM-1 affects many organisms which themselves cause all sorts of "challenging" conditions and now have multi-drug resistance.
     
    Before fungal molecule to be detected in the soil in Nova Scotia, Canada, researchers found that NDM-1 requires zinc to "grow." The challenge in them was to find a way to remove zinc safely and without causing the appearance of side effects for the patient. With the discovery of the molecule, known as AMA, this extraction becomes possible.
     
    During the laboratory studies, the experts found that it is really effective and allows the antibiotic to act in order to achieve cure. But there is still much work to researchers, pending the development of a "global" solution.

    Published in News

    proffemaleScientists from The University of Manchester have discovered that 'lonely' microbes are more likely to mutate, resulting in higher rates of antibiotic resistance.

    The study, published today in Nature Communications and jointly funded by The Wellcome Trust and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, explored the mutation rates of E. coli.

    Researchers found out that the rate of mutation varied according to how many of the bacteria there were. Surprisingly, they discovered that more bacteria gave fewer mutations.

    Meanwhile more 'lonely' bacteria developed greater resistance to the well-known antibiotic Rifampicin, used to treat tuberculosis.

    Dr Chris Knight joint lead author on the study with Dr. Rok Krašovec from The University of Manchester, said: "What we were looking for was a connection between the environment and the ability of bacteria to develop the resistance to antibiotics. We discovered that the rate at which E. coli mutates depends upon how many 'friends' it has around. It seems that more lonely organisms are more likely to mutate."

    This change of the mutation rate is controlled by a form of social communication known as quorum sensing – this is the way bacteria communicate to let each other know how much of a crowd there is. This involves the release of signalling molecules by bacteria when in a dense population to help the organisms understand their surrounding environment and coordinate behaviour to improve their defence mechanisms and adapt to the availability of nutrients.

    Dr. Krašovec said: "We were able to change their mutation rates by changing who they shared a test tube with, which could mean that bacteria manipulate each other's mutation rates. It also suggests that mutation rates could be affected when bacteria are put at low densities for instance by a person taking antibiotics."

    The rate of mutation was found to be dependent on the gene luxS which is known to be involved in quorum sensing in a wide range of bacteria.

    The team now hopes to find ways to control this signalling for medical applications in a future study funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.

    "Eventually this might lead to interventions to control mutation rates, for instance to minimise the evolution of antibiotic resistance, allowing antibiotics to work better," said Dr Knight.

    Dr Mike Turner, Head of Infection and Immunobiology at the Wellcome Trust said: "Antibiotic resistance is a real threat to disease control and public health today. Any insight into the origins of such resistance is valuable in the fight to prevent it. Chris Knight and his team have gained a fundamental understanding of bacterial communication and the development of mutations which in the long run could contribute to more potent antibiotics and better control of bacterial disease".

    Published in News
    Thursday, 30 January 2014 17:20

    A digital test for toxic genes

    Genomic DNALike little factories, cells metabolize raw materials and convert them into chemical compounds. Biotechnologists take advantage of this ability, using microorganisms to produce pharmaceuticals and biofuels. To boost output to an industrial scale and create new types of chemicals, biotechnologists manipulate the microorganisms' natural metabolism, often by "overexpressing" certain genes in the cell. But such metabolic engineering is hampered by the fact that many genes become toxic to the cell when overexpressed.

    Now, Allon Wagner, Uri Gophna, and Eytan Ruppin of Tel Aviv University's Blavatnik School of Computer Science and Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, along with researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science, have developed a computer algorithm that predicts which metabolic genes are lethal to cells when overexpressed. The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could help guide metabolic engineering to produce new chemicals in more cost-effective ways.

    "In the lab, biotechnologists often determine which genes can be overexpressed using trial and error," said Wagner. "We can save them a lot of time and money by ruling out certain possibilities and highlighting other, more promising ones."

    Gaining an EDGE

    When metabolic genes are expressed, the genetic information they contain is converted into proteins, which catalyze the chemical reactions necessary for life. Overexpression means that greater-than-normal amounts of proteins are produced. Biotechnologists typically overexpress native genes of an industrial microorganism to boost a certain metabolic pathway in the cell, thus increasing the production of desired compounds. Sometimes they overexpress foreign genes—genes transferred from other organisms—in an industrial microbe to build new metabolic pathways and allow it to synthesize new compounds. But they often find that their efforts are hindered by the toxicity of the genes that they wish to overexpress.

    Prof. Ruppin's laboratory builds large-scale software models of cellular metabolism, one of the most fundamental aspects of life. These models convert physical, chemical, and biological information into a set of mathematical equations, allowing scientists to learn how cells work and explore what happens if they are tweaked in certain ways. The newly developed algorithm, Expression Dependent Gene Effects, or EDGE, predicts what happens if scientists manipulate cells to overexpress certain genes. EDGE allows biotechnologists to foresee cases in which the overexpressed genes become toxic and then direct their efforts toward other genes.

    To validate their method, TAU researchers used genetic manipulation tools to overexpress 26 different genes in E. coli bacterial cells. Comparing the results of their computer simulations with the actual growth of the overexpressed strains that was measured in the lab, they saw that EDGE was able to predict which of the overexpressed genes turned out to be lethal to E. coli. EDGE was also successful in identifying cases of foreign genes that were toxic to E. coli, as the researchers learned from comparing the simulations' results with data collected by their collaborators at the Weizmann Institute of Science.

    Beyond bacteria

    EDGE's applications appear to extend beyond bacteria. The researchers conducted tests showing that the genes EDGE predicted to be toxic when overexpressed are expressed at low levels not only in microorganisms like bacteria, but also in multicellular organisms, including humans. The researchers say these results reflect the vital evolutionary need to keep the expression of potentially deleterious genes in check.

    "Although EDGE's current focus is biotechnology, gene overexpression also plays a central part in many human diseases, particularly in cancer. We hope that future work will apply EDGE to those directions," Wagner said.

    Published in News

    virus-primary-cells-mef cells-rat-knock-out-stem-cell-characterization-teratoma-formation

    Researchers have discovered a tube-shaped structure that forms temporarily in a certain type of virus to deliver its DNA during the infection process and then dissolves after its job is completed.
    The researchers discovered the mechanism in the phiX174 virus, which attacks E. coli bacteria. The virus, called a bacteriophage because it infects bacteria, is in a class of viruses that do not contain an obvious tail section for the transfer of its DNA into host cells.
    "But, lo and behold, it appears to make its own tail," said Michael Rossmann, Purdue University's Hanley Distinguished Professor of Biological Sciences. "It doesn't carry its tail around with it, but when it is about to infect the host it makes a tail."
    Researchers were surprised to discover the short-lived tail.
    "This structure was completely unexpected," said Bentley A. Fane, a professor in the BIO5 Institute at the University of Arizona. "No one had seen it before because it quickly emerges and then disappears afterward, so it's very ephemeral."
    Although this behavior had not been seen before, another phage called T7 has a short tail that becomes longer when it is time to infect the host, said Purdue postdoctoral research associate Lei Sun, lead author of a research paper to appear in the journal Nature on Dec. 15.
    The paper's other authors are University of Arizona research technician Lindsey N. Young; Purdue postdoctoral research associate Xinzheng Zhang and former Purdue research associate Sergei P. Boudko; Purdue assistant research scientist Andrei Fokine; Purdue graduate student Erica Zbornik; Aaron P. Roznowski, a University of Arizona graduate student; Ian Molineux, a professor of molecular genetics and microbiology at the University of Texas at Austin; Rossmann; and Fane.
    Researchers at the BIO5 institute mutated the virus so that it could not form the tube. The mutated viruses were unable to infect host cells, Fane said.
    The virus's outer shell, or capsid, is made of four proteins, labeled H, J, F and G. The structures of all but the H protein had been determined previously. The new findings show that the H protein assembles into a tube-shaped structure. The E. coli cells have a double membrane, and the researchers discovered that the two ends of the virus's H-protein tube attach to the host cell's inner and outer membranes.
    Images created with a technique called cryoelectron tomography show this attachment. The H-protein tube was shown to consist of 10 "alpha-helical" molecules coiled around each other. Findings also showed that the inside of the tube contains a lining of amino acids that could be ideal for the transfer of DNA into the host.
    "This may be a general property found in viral-DNA conduits and could be critical for efficient genome translocation into the host," Rossmann said.
    Like many other viruses, the shape of the phiX174 capsid has icosahedral symmetry, a roughly spherical shape containing 20 triangular faces.

    Published in News

    profrHuIL4

    Description: Recombinant Human IL-4 produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 130 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 15000 Dalton. The rHuIL-4 is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.

    Source : E.coli

    Catalog number : 04-GMPhuIL4-50 µg

    Molecular weight : 15 KDa

    Identity : rh IL-4 as measured by Elisa and Western Blot

    Specific activity : > 13.10 6 units/mg compared to NIBSC standard . CT-h4.S cell proliferation assay.

    650 000 IU /vial

    Purity : > 98% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC

    Endotoxin content : < 0.1 EU/ µg of IL-4 (LAL test)

    Host DNA : < 10 pg/ng protein

    Sterility : sterile according to EP Test 2.6.1.

    Stabiliser : contains Trehalose ; no preservative.

    Physical state : freeze-dried

    Stability : 12 months at – 20°C to – 80°C

    3 months after reconstitution with water for injection ( as defined in EP Monograph 0169) when stored at -80°C

    Reconstitution : use 500 µL water for injection in class A environment in order to keep the GMP grade .

    Packaging unit : 50 µg protein (Lowry test)

    GMP

    GENTAUR rh IL-4 is manufactured in full compliance with cGMP in facilities approved by the Belgian Ministry of Health for the production and storage of medicinal products.

    Use: GENTAUR rh IL-4 is not an approved medicinal product and cannot be injected as such to patients.

    FOR EX VIVO CELL CULTURE AND FOR IN VITRO RESEARCH USE ONLY

    PDF-IconDownload Gentaur's GMP Certificate of Analysis And MSDS

    Price: 483 Euro

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    Published in Top Products
    Wednesday, 17 July 2013 16:38

    Self-cleaning screens even killed E. coli

    dirty-smartphone-products-taq-pcr-elisa-targatt-accupower-elisa-kits

    A survey by the magazine Which? Conducted in 2010, the surface of a cell phone contains 18 times more harmful bacteria than a button in a public toilet cistern. For this reason, the company Corning introduces coating displays antimicrobial properties which kills virtually emptied microorganisms on it.

    CEO Jeff Evarsan says that innovative coverage will be effective against drug resistant bacteria and viruses. Originally designed for use in biomedical institutions, creators see huge potential and applied to the standard personal phones.

    Evarsan demonstrate some of the properties of the coating in public places such as fluorescently labeled bacteria Escherichia coli usually of glass and a specially crafted their antibacterial glass. While on common glass bacteria live undisturbed and full potential to infect someone on these patented by Corning coverage are completely destroyed in less than two hours.

    Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that is a major cause of food poisoning and severe forms of gastrointestinal disorders. Study of the American Health Organization in 2012 concluded that one in six mobile phones is seriously contaminated with a large number of pathogens, mainly E. coli.
     
    The company informed that the first phones with their innovative hygienic coverage will reach the market by 2015

    Published in News
    Monday, 24 June 2013 15:06

    New Purified Genomic DNA Products

    Vibrio cholerae Z132, DNA (10 µg)

    PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: Each aliquot contains 10 µg of DNA extracted from a pure culture of Vibrio cholerae. The identification of this organism was confirmed by 16S sequencing. The purity of the culture was monitored by Gram staining and by additional culturing. The DNA was extracted from the cells following the bacterial protocol from the Qiagen®Genomic DNA Handbook using Qiagen®Genomic DNA Buffers with a 500/G genomic tip.DNA concentration and A260/280 ratios are determined using a NanoDrop ND-1000®. The extracted DNA also tested positive on an inhouse real time PCR assay.

    INTENDED USE: Purified Genomic DNA is designed for use as an amplification and/or detection control for nucleic acid testing of Vibrio cholerae. It can also be used to determine a limit of detection (LOD), in diagnostic assay development, cross-reactivity studies or genomic sequencing. When used as a control for nucleic acid tests, the same protocols as those used to amplify extracted clinical specimens should be employed.

    PRECAUTIONS:
    - Use Universal Precautions when handling Genomic DNA.
    - The material may be re-frozen after thawing. Repetitive freezing and thawing is not recommended (aliquot material if necessary).
    - To avoid cross-contamination, use separate pipette tips for all reagents.

    RECOMMENDED STORAGE: This control is supplied in TE Buffer and should be frozen at -20°C or below.

    DO NOT USE IN HUMANS: These products are intended for research, product development or manufacturing use only. These products are NOT intended for use in the manufacture or processing of injectable products subject to licensure under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act or for any other product intended for administration to humans.

    Escherichia coli O111:NM, DNA (10 µg)

    PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: Each aliquot contains 10 µg of DNA extracted from a pure culture of Escherichia coli. The identification of this organism was confirmed by 16S sequencing. The purity of the culture was monitored by Gram staining and by additional culturing. he DNA was extracted from the cells following the bacterial protocol from the Qiagen®Genomic DNA Handbook using Qiagen®Genomic DNA Buffers with a 500/G genomic tip.DNA concentration and A260/280 ratios are determined using a NanoDrop ND-1000®. The extracted DNA also tested positive on an inhouse real time PCR assay.

    INTENDED USE: Purified Genomic DNA is designed for use as an amplification and/or detection control for nucleic acid testing of Escherichia coli. It can also be used to determine a limit of detection (LOD), in diagnostic assay development, cross-reactivity studies or enomic sequencing. When used as a control for nucleic acid tests, the same protocols as those used to amplify extracted clinical specimens should be employed.

    PRECAUTIONS:
    - Use Universal Precautions when handling Genomic DNA.
    - The material may be re-frozen after thawing. Repetitive freezing and thawing is not recommended (aliquot material if necessary).
    - To avoid cross-contamination, use separate pipette tips for all reagents.

    RECOMMENDED STORAGE: This control is supplied in TE Buffer and should be frozen at -20°C or below.

    Plesiomonas shigelloides Z130, DNA (10 µg)

    PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: Each aliquot contains 10 µg of DNA extracted from a pure culture of Plesiomonas shigelloides. The identification of this organism was confirmed by 16S sequencing. The purity of the culture was monitored by Gram staining and by dditional culturing. The DNA was extracted from the cells following the bacterial protocol from the Qiagen® Genomic DNA Handbook using Qiagen® Genomic DNA Buffers with a 500/G genomic tip. DNA concentration and A260/280 ratios are determined using a NanoDrop ND-1000®. The extracted DNA also tested positive on an inhouse real time PCR assay.

    INTENDED USE: Purified Genomic DNA is designed for use as an amplification and/or detection control for nucleic acid testing of Plesiomonas shigelloides. It can also be used to determine a limit of detection (LOD), in diagnostic assay development, crossreactivity tudies or genomic sequencing. When used as a control for nucleic acid tests, the same protocols as those used to amplify extracted clinical specimens should be employed.

    PRECAUTIONS:
    - Use Universal Precautions when handling Genomic DNA.
    - The material may be re-frozen after thawing. Repetitive freezing and thawing is not recommended (aliquot material if necessary).
    - To avoid cross-contamination, use separate pipette tips for all reagents.

    RECOMMENDED STORAGE: This control is supplied in TE Buffer and should be frozen at -20°C or below.

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    Published in Promos

    Pina Fratamico is on the way to find the easiest and fastest way to test for harmfulEscherichia coli in ground beef. She explores using a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system to discover specific gene targets that indicate the presence of dangerous foodborne pathogens. The results show that assays performed using this PCR system are rapid, sensitive, and reliable.

    "Testing using these types of systems is faster, easier, and more reproducible than previous methods, and this should increase food safety in the long run. I feel that we could confidently move to these new systems for screening ground beef and other foods for E. coli contamination," says Fratamico, researcher at the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania.

    Certain strains produce a potentially dangerous toxin called Shiga toxin, but not all E. coli are dangerous. These Shiga toxin-producing E. coli also known as STEC can be found in raw meat and cause serious food poisoning in humans. According the FSIS - Food Safety and Inspection Service website, in October 2012 over, 2,300 pounds of ground beef were recalled due to contamination with STEC.

    "Certain groups of STEC have been declared as adulterants by the USDA FSIS, and the availability of rapid and reliable tests for these pathogens is critical so that testing results are available before meat is shipped to restaurants and consumers," she explains.

    In the meat industry the PCR protocol has already been used for some time. The genetic test detects the presence of specific gene targets that indicate the existence of STEC in meat. The new generation of real-time PCR systems, like the GeneDisc from France used in this particular study, employ a self-contained unit that standardizes the procedure and tend to be relatively portable and easy to use - offering obvious advantages for both meat processors and inspectors from the industry and government alike.

    Published in News